Most common jobs 150 years ago in Massachusetts

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August 5, 2022
Bettmann // Getty Images

Most common jobs 150 years ago in Massachusetts

With the COVID-19 pandemic continuing to impact the global economy, the current job market is a hot topic in the news cycle. But while the pandemic itself is, historically, something of an economic aberration, the U.S. economy that we know today has a long and storied history of expansions, recessions, and evolution.

At the time of the American Revolution, most of the job market in the U.S. revolved around agriculture or food acquisition in some way. Many individuals and communities farmed for subsistence, not even growing enough to have an excess to sell for profits. As the fledgling country grew, so did its economy, springing forth during the Industrial Revolution of the late 1700s and early 1800s, and inexorably shifting the nation’s economic focus from agrarian efforts to those of manufacturing, trade, and other forms of business. Inventions like the steam engine and cotton gin accelerated production, feeding a booming job market that was met with immigrants eager to find work.

By the mid- to late-1800s, the U.S. economy and job market was characterized by successive periods of rapid growth followed by panics or depressions. This economic disquiet was caused by stock speculation and oscillating levels of trust in the federal government’s ability to regulate cash flow and support banks. In turn, the uncertain economy produced a volatile job market.

In an effort to capture a snapshot of the U.S. job market’s history, Stacker compiled a list of the most common jobs in Massachusetts from 150 years ago using data from the U.S. Census Bureau. By transcribing the previously untranscribed Table XXVII from the 1870 decennial census, a state-level glimpse into the historic job market can be seen. Nationally, farmers and planters were the most common occupation 150 years ago, just one of the many agricultural jobs that made up more than 47% of all employed persons over ten years old.

Continue reading to find out more about the historical job market in your home state or explore the data on your own on our site, GitHub, or data.world.

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#1. Laborers (not specified)

- Massachusetts employment: 50,564
- National employment: 1,031,666
--- #3 most common job in the U.S.
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Frances Benjamin Johnston // Library of Congress

#2. Boot and shoe makers

- Massachusetts employment: 48,255
- National employment: 171,127
--- #7 most common job in the U.S.
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English Heritage/Heritage Images // Getty Images

#3. Domestic servants

- Massachusetts employment: 45,770
- National employment: 975,734
--- #4 most common job in the U.S.
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Underwood Archives // Getty Images

#4. Farmers and planters

- Massachusetts employment: 39,766
- National employment: 2,977,711
--- #1 most common job in the U.S.
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Lewis W. Hine // Wikimedia Commons

#5. Cotton-mill operatives

- Massachusetts employment: 39,195
- National employment: 111,606
--- #14 most common job in the U.S.
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#6. Agricultural laborers

- Massachusetts employment: 31,019
- National employment: 2,885,996
--- #2 most common job in the U.S.
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Keystone-France/Gamma-Keystone via Getty Images

#7. Carpenters and joiners

- Massachusetts employment: 23,506
- National employment: 344,596
--- #5 most common job in the U.S.
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Lewis W. Hine // Library of Congress

#8. Woolen-mill operatives

- Massachusetts employment: 19,863
- National employment: 58,836
--- #22 most common job in the U.S.
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#9. Clerks in stores

- Massachusetts employment: 17,121
- National employment: 222,504
--- #6 most common job in the U.S.
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Lewis W. Hine // Library of Congress

#10. Tailors, tailoresses, and seamstresses

- Massachusetts employment: 16,787
- National employment: 161,820
--- #8 most common job in the U.S.
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#11. Sailors

- Massachusetts employment: 10,454
- National employment: 56,663
--- #23 most common job in the U.S.
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London Metropolitan Archives/Heritage Images // Getty Images

#12. Machinists

- Massachusetts employment: 8,273
- National employment: 54,755
--- #24 most common job in the U.S.
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Bain News Service // Library of Congress

#13. Draymen, hackmen, teamsters, &c

- Massachusetts employment: 8,105
- National employment: 120,756
--- #13 most common job in the U.S.
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Library of Congress // Wikimedia Commons

#14. Painters and varnishers

- Massachusetts employment: 7,887
- National employment: 85,123
--- #18 most common job in the U.S.
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Minnesota Historical Society/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images

#15. Milliners, dress and mantua makers

- Massachusetts employment: 7,649
- National employment: 92,084
--- #16 most common job in the U.S.
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Everett Collection // Shutterstock

#16. Teachers (not specified)

- Massachusetts employment: 7,220
- National employment: 126,822
--- #12 most common job in the U.S.
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Charles Phelps Cushing/ClassicStock // Getty Images

#17. Traders and dealers (not specified)

- Massachusetts employment: 6,590
- National employment: 100,406
--- #15 most common job in the U.S.
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Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

#18. Blacksmiths

- Massachusetts employment: 5,774
- National employment: 141,774
--- #11 most common job in the U.S.
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Carl Mydans // Library of Congress

#19. Masons, brick and stone

- Massachusetts employment: 5,739
- National employment: 89,710
--- #17 most common job in the U.S.
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SSPL // Getty Images

#20. Employees of railroad companies (not clerks)

- Massachusetts employment: 5,643
- National employment: 154,027
--- #9 most common job in the U.S.
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Lewis W. Hine/Buyenlarge // Getty Images

#21. Fishermen and oystermen

- Massachusetts employment: 5,311
- National employment: 27,106
--- #48 most common job in the U.S.
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#22. Cabinetmakers

- Massachusetts employment: 5,100
- National employment: 42,835
--- #30 most common job in the U.S.
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#23. Curriers, tanners, and finishers of leather

- Massachusetts employment: 4,757
- National employment: 28,702
--- #45 most common job in the U.S.
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Everett Collection // Shutterstock

#24. Mill and factory operatives (not specified)

- Massachusetts employment: 4,629
- National employment: 41,619
--- #33 most common job in the U.S.
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Smith Collection/Gado // Getty Images

#25. Manufacturers

- Massachusetts employment: 4,500
- National employment: 42,877
--- #29 most common job in the U.S.
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Underwood Archives // Getty Images

#26. Traders and dealers in groceries

- Massachusetts employment: 4,073
- National employment: 74,410
--- #19 most common job in the U.S.
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Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

#27. Iron & steel works & shops operatives (not specified)

- Massachusetts employment: 3,769
- National employment: 22,141
--- #55 most common job in the U.S.
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H.C. White Co. // Library of Congress

#28. Paper-mill operatives

- Massachusetts employment: 3,567
- National employment: 12,469
--- #79 most common job in the U.S.
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GHI/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

#29. Iron-foundry operatives

- Massachusetts employment: 3,366
- National employment: 34,245
--- #39 most common job in the U.S.
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Heritage Art/Heritage Images via Getty Images

#30. Printers

- Massachusetts employment: 3,178
- National employment: 39,860
--- #36 most common job in the U.S.
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Levin C. Handy // Library of Congerss

#31. Marble and stone cutters

- Massachusetts employment: 2,847
- National employment: 25,831
--- #51 most common job in the U.S.
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Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

#32. Book-keepers and accountants in stores

- Massachusetts employment: 2,779
- National employment: 31,177
--- #43 most common job in the U.S.
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John C.H. Grabill // Library of Congress

#33. Officials of Government

- Massachusetts employment: 2,671
- National employment: 44,743
--- #26 most common job in the U.S.
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W.E.B. DuBois // Library of Congress

#34. Gold and silver workers

- Massachusetts employment: 2,652
- National employment: 18,508
--- #60 most common job in the U.S.
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SSPL // Getty Images

#35. Carpet-makers

- Massachusetts employment: 2,378
- National employment: 15,669
--- #70 most common job in the U.S.
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Library of Congress/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images

#36. Ship-carpenters

- Massachusetts employment: 2,369
- National employment: 15,900
--- #69 most common job in the U.S.
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Schenectady Museum/Hall of Electrical History Foundation/Corbis via Getty Images

#37. Employees of manufacturing establishments

- Massachusetts employment: 2,326
- National employment: 20,242
--- #59 most common job in the U.S.
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Matthias Weaver // Library of Congress

#38. Carriage and wagon makers

- Massachusetts employment: 2,190
- National employment: 42,464
--- #31 most common job in the U.S.
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Bettmann // Getty Images

#39. Traders and dealers in provisions

- Massachusetts employment: 2,119
- National employment: 7,528
--- #110 most common job in the U.S.
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Kirn Vintage Stock//Corbis via Getty Images

#40. Brick and tile makers

- Massachusetts employment: 2,085
- National employment: 26,070
--- #50 most common job in the U.S.
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Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

#41. Physicians and surgeons

- Massachusetts employment: 2,047
- National employment: 62,383
--- #20 most common job in the U.S.
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Gari Melchers // Wikimedia Commons

#42. Clergymen

- Massachusetts employment: 2,040
- National employment: 43,874
--- #28 most common job in the U.S.
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Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

#43. Hat and cap makers

- Massachusetts employment: 2,002
- National employment: 12,625
--- #78 most common job in the U.S.
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Everett Collection // Shutterstock

#44. Gardeners and nurserymen

- Massachusetts employment: 1,835
- National employment: 31,435
--- #42 most common job in the U.S.
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Turrill & Miller of San Francisco/Buyenlarge // Getty Images

#45. Hostlers

- Massachusetts employment: 1,757
- National employment: 17,586
--- #62 most common job in the U.S.
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Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

#46. Engineers and firemen

- Massachusetts employment: 1,726
- National employment: 34,233
--- #40 most common job in the U.S.
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Minnesota Historical Society/CORBIS/Corbis via Getty Images

#47. Butchers

- Massachusetts employment: 1,704
- National employment: 44,354
--- #27 most common job in the U.S.
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Underwood Archives // Getty Images

#48. Traders and dealers in dry-goods

- Massachusetts employment: 1,690
- National employment: 39,790
--- #37 most common job in the U.S.
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Universal History Archive/Universal Images Group via Getty Images

#49. Salesmen and saleswomen

- Massachusetts employment: 1,676
- National employment: 14,203
--- #75 most common job in the U.S.
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Bettmann // Getty Images

#50. Launderers and laundresses

- Massachusetts employment: 1,656
- National employment: 60,906
--- #21 most common job in the U.S.

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