State economies most and least impacted by immigration

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July 2, 2020
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State economies most and least impacted by immigration

The heated debate in the United States over immigration often raises questions about the economic value—or cost—of the nation's immigrants.

Some policymakers blame foreign-born workers for taking coveted jobs and slowing wage growth. Others argue that immigrants in the workforce fuel innovation; bring education, skills, and specializations; and make significant contributions to economic productivity. They use their wages to buy consumer goods, services, houses, and businesses that create jobs for other workers.

To look at which states benefit the most (and least) from immigration, Stacker looked at January 2020 rankings from WalletHub, a personal finance website, which compared the economic impact of foreign-born populations in the 50 U.S. states and Washington D.C. To do so, WalletHub analyzed 23 indicators such as immigrants' household income, their homeownership, the job their businesses generate, and jobs created by the economic contributions of international students. Data sources used for WalletHub's rankings include the U.S. Census Bureau, Bureau of Labor Statistics, NAFSA: Association of International Educators, American Immigration Council, and Center for American Entrepreneurship. The rankings further look at states' shares of foreign-born workers, the number of work visas per capita, and income from immigrant-owned businesses.

Using such factors, WalletHub measured how much states benefit from their immigrant populations, the socioeconomic contributions of foreign-born residents, the brain gain of skills and experience provided by highly educated immigrants, and the economic role played by international students. By taking these four general categories, ranking them, and weighing all of the indicators within them, WalletHub calculated a total score for every state.

Keep reading to find out which state has benefited the most economically from its immigrant population and which state the least.

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Staff Sgt. Scott Tynes // Wikimedia Commons

#51. Mississippi

- Total WalletHub score: 15.32

- Immigrant workforce: #50
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 3.1% (37,889 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 251.64
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #48
--- Immigrant population: 69,752 (2.3% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $46,442
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 13,518 (1.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.04% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #49
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 13.6% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #49
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 3,312
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $84.6 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 863

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Lorie Shaull // Flickr

#50. Wyoming

- Total WalletHub score: 17.88

- Immigrant workforce: #49
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 4.2% (12,277 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 159.67
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #35
--- Immigrant population: 20,276 (3.5% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $49,045
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 4,550 (2.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.02% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #51
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 12.8% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #45
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 1,033
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $25.8 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 211

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Charles Knowles // Shutterstock

#49. Idaho

- Total WalletHub score: 20.38

- Immigrant workforce: #45
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 8.0% (61,680 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 323.26
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.3% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #32
--- Immigrant population: 100,996 (6.0% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $45,707
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 23,799 (5.6% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.08% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #50
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 10.6% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #42
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 3,429
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $82.8 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 762

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Pixabay // Picryl

#48. Montana

- Total WalletHub score: 20.6

- Immigrant workforce: #51
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 2.5% (12,522 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 162.13
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.7% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #36
--- Immigrant population: 22,685 (2.2% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $50,240
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 5,530 (1.9% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.08% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #45
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 19.6% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #44
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 1,581
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $52.5 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 490

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GoodFreePhotos

#47. South Dakota

- Total WalletHub score: 21.18

- Immigrant workforce: #44
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 4.1% (18,321 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 334.84
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #44
--- Immigrant population: 30,112 (3.5% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $45,240
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 4,169 (1.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.01% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #48
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 13.9% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #40
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 2,064
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $45.4 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 320

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GTS Productions // Shutterstock

#46. Louisiana

- Total WalletHub score: 21.61

- Immigrant workforce: #41
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 5.6% (113,124 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 337.53
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.5% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #51
--- Immigrant population: 193,205 (4.1% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $44,913
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 37,220 (3.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.05% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #35
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 14.4% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #41
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 7,428
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $264.9 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 2,996

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John Moore // Getty Images

#45. Maine

- Total WalletHub score: 21.97

- Immigrant workforce: #46
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 3.9% (25,716 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 326.45
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.1% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #37
--- Immigrant population: 47,946 (3.6% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $49,550
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 11,684 (2.9% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.06% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #41
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 19.3% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #48
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 1,335
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $51.1 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 421

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f11photo // Shutterstock

#44. South Carolina

- Total WalletHub score: 22.32

- Immigrant workforce: #43
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 6.4% (143,227 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 287.51
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.9% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #46
--- Immigrant population: 240,439 (4.9% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $47,981
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 56,445 (4.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.06% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #40
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 16.2% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #47
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 6,064
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $205.9 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 2,071

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Steve Heap // Shutterstock

#43. West Virginia

- Total WalletHub score: 23.74

- Immigrant workforce: #47
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 2.1% (15,495 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 78.51
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.5% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #47
--- Immigrant population: 29,640 (1.6% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $51,616
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 6,768 (1.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.04% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #36
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 21.2% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #30
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 4,152
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $131.7 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 1,250

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Danneellah // Shutterstock

#42. Oklahoma

- Total WalletHub score: 24.67

- Immigrant workforce: #39
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 8.3% (145,763 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 155.99
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.3% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #40
--- Immigrant population: 234,536 (6.0% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $44,136
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 51,021 (5.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.05% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #43
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 12.5% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #37
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 7,935
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $262.5 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 2,598

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PAUL RATJE/AFP // Getty Images

#41. New Mexico

- Total WalletHub score: 24.88

- Immigrant workforce: #31
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 12.6% (111,178 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 109.87
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.0% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #28
--- Immigrant population: 201,234 (9.6% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $37,076
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 53,843 (10.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.13% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #47
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 9.5% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #46
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 3,208
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $91.0 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 835

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Kevin Ruck // Shutterstock

#40. Alabama

- Total WalletHub score: 25.28

- Immigrant workforce: #48
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 4.8% (98,635 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 121.14
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #49
--- Immigrant population: 168,111 (3.5% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $45,516
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 36,685 (2.9% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.03% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #27
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 16.2% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #38
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 9,326
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $313.7 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 3,164

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f11photo // Shutterstock

#39. Tennessee

- Total WalletHub score: 25.34

- Immigrant workforce: #35
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 6.7% (204,421 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 256.33
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #45
--- Immigrant population: 334,062 (5.0% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $47,866
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 64,229 (3.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.09% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #37
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 16.8% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #43
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 9,267
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $348.3 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 4,358

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Christopher Boswell // Shutterstock

#38. Arkansas

- Total WalletHub score: 25.8

- Immigrant workforce: #34
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 7.0% (90,193 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 370.02
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #41
--- Immigrant population: 142,480 (4.8% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $44,286
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 31,705 (4.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.06% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #38
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 11% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #39
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 6,817
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $156.4 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 1,409

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George Frey // Getty Images

#37. Utah

- Total WalletHub score: 25.93

- Immigrant workforce: #38
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 11.5% (166,863 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 293.17
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.5% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #30
--- Immigrant population: 256,560 (8.4% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $52,976
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 53,224 (8.0% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.10% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #44
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 15.4% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #36
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 7,946
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $219.3 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 2,185

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Ruth Peterkin // Shutterstock

#36. Alaska

- Total WalletHub score: 28.36

- Immigrant workforce: #24
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 10.5% (36,923 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 492.07
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #15
--- Immigrant population: 57,399 (7.8% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $68,862
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 11,345 (7.0% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.06% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #46
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 18.8% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #51
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 406
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $14.1 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 110

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David Harmantas // Shutterstock

#35. North Dakota

- Total WalletHub score: 29.95

- Immigrant workforce: #21
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 4.7% (18,886 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 438.45
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #29
--- Immigrant population: 29,629 (3.9% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $50,150
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 3,903 (2.0% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.01% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #42
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 20.6% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #35
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 2,114
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $53.4 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 471

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Dave Kotinsky // Getty Images for ITI Data

#34. Nebraska

- Total WalletHub score: 30.11

- Immigrant workforce: #32
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 8.4% (83,169 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 291.27
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #27
--- Immigrant population: 133,424 (7.0% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $47,943
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 25,519 (5.1% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.03% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #34
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 12.2% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #24
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 5,628
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $177.6 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 1,738

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John Arehart // Shutterstock

#33. Vermont

- Total WalletHub score: 30.42

- Immigrant workforce: #28
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 4.9% (16,230 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 372.49
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #31
--- Immigrant population: 28,992 (4.6% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $55,356
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 7,001 (3.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.06% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #33
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 21.7% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #19
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 1,692
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $80.6 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 777

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jessica.kirsh // Shutterstock

#32. Kentucky

- Total WalletHub score: 31.68

- Immigrant workforce: #36
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 5.1% (100,151 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 314.99
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #50
--- Immigrant population: 167,110 (3.8% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $45,816
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 28,321 (2.5% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.07% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #17
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 16.3% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #21
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 12,776
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $444.6 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 3,195

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f11photo // Shutterstock

#31. Iowa

- Total WalletHub score: 31.99

- Immigrant workforce: #33
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 6.2% (99,970 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 264.42
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.5% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #43
--- Immigrant population: 161,872 (5.2% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $49,453
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 32,615 (3.7% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.03% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #29
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 13.8% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #12
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 12,624
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $409.7 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 3,596

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Mark Reinstein // Shutterstock

#30. Kansas

- Total WalletHub score: 33.09

- Immigrant workforce: #29
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 9.1% (130,127 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 214.80
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.3% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #38
--- Immigrant population: 206,683 (7.1% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $49,387
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 45,998 (6.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.04% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #25
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 13.5% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #23
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 9,339
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $271.2 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 2,507

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Pixabay // Picryl

#29. Wisconsin

- Total WalletHub score: 33.49

- Immigrant workforce: #40
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 5.9% (174,612 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 309.88
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.8% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #34
--- Immigrant population: 287,381 (5.0% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $53,055
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 60,035 (3.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.04% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #19
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 15.3% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #32
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 13,067
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $448.5 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 5,309

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f11photo // Shutterstock

#28. Colorado

- Total WalletHub score: 33.9

- Immigrant workforce: #27
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 12.0% (340,295 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 401.64
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.4% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #24
--- Immigrant population: 542,977 (9.8% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $54,100
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 115,451 (8.4% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.11% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #26
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 15.8% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #31
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 11,888
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $470.7 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 6,029

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Aceshot1 // Shutterstock

#27. Ohio

- Total WalletHub score: 34.48

- Immigrant workforce: #30
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 5.3% (295,489 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 79.77
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.3% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #33
--- Immigrant population: 520,981 (4.5% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $53,643
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 116,807 (3.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.05% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #24
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 21% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #16
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 37,314
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $1.3 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 14,575

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Sean Pavone // Shutterstock

#26. New Hampshire

- Total WalletHub score: 35.12

- Immigrant workforce: #26
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 6.7% (48,322 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 327.25
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.3% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #22
--- Immigrant population: 81,287 (6.1% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $68,926
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 19,157 (5.1% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.07% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #30
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 21.5% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #18
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 4,333
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $143.5 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 1,786

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Josemaria Toscano // Shutterstock

#25. Oregon

- Total WalletHub score: 35.62

- Immigrant workforce: #25
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 13.0% (252,281 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 315.14
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 4.5% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #16
--- Immigrant population: 405,821 (9.9% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $53,438
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 85,882 (8.7% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.15% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #31
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 15.6% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #20
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 11,373
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $427.4 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 4,454

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Missouri News Horizon // Flickr

#24. Missouri

- Total WalletHub score: 35.64

- Immigrant workforce: #42
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 5.1% (147,215 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 284.14
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.0% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #42
--- Immigrant population: 247,788 (4.1% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $51,412
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 53,489 (3.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.04% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #16
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 18.6% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #15
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 22,428
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $637.8 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 7,572

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Patawee // Shutterstock

#23. Indiana

- Total WalletHub score: 35.77

- Immigrant workforce: #37
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 6.3% (200,009 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 224.79
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.8% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #39
--- Immigrant population: 341,915 (5.2% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $47,535
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 74,158 (4.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.04% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #23
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 15.7% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #8
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 29,083
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $985.4 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 11,324

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Daniel Weiss // Unsplash

#22. North Carolina

- Total WalletHub score: 37.84

- Immigrant workforce: #23
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 10.8% (502,986 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 585.60
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #25
--- Immigrant population: 799,616 (7.9% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $48,123
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 176,269 (6.9% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.12% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #18
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 16.6% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #34
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 21,954
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $722.3 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 9,043

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Kait_P // Pixabay

#21. Minnesota

- Total WalletHub score: 40.69

- Immigrant workforce: #22
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 9.9% (290,780 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 393.91
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 1.8% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #21
--- Immigrant population: 461,758 (8.4% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $54,894
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 85,919 (5.5% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.04% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #14
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 18% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #26
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 15,279
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $482.5 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 4,497

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Sean Pavone // Shutterstock

#20. Rhode Island

- Total WalletHub score: 40.97

- Immigrant workforce: #20
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 15.8% (83,601 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 394.47
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 2.9% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #17
--- Immigrant population: 144,197 (13.7% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $49,920
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 30,308 (12.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.04% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #32
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 13.4% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #4
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 5,376
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $263.7 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 2,649

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IIP Photo Archive // Flickr

#19. Arizona

- Total WalletHub score: 42.62

- Immigrant workforce: #19
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 17.1% (519,425 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 393.02
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.5% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #13
--- Immigrant population: 933,152 (13.4% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $45,328
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 227,611 (14.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.27% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #28
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 12.8% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #17
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 22,741
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $727.6 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 8,745

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Pexels

#18. Georgia

- Total WalletHub score: 44.82

- Immigrant workforce: #16
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 13.9% (658,184 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 657.24
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 4.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #18
--- Immigrant population: 1,035,983 (10.1% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $55,433
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 237,619 (10.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.16% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #15
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 19% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #29
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 23,623
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $850.6 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 10,259

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Pixabay

#17. Hawaii

- Total WalletHub score: 47.11

- Immigrant workforce: #12
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 22.6% (153,404 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 62.31
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 6.4% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #2
--- Immigrant population: 259,586 (18.3% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $72,362
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 48,899 (18.4% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.38% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #39
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 18.9% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #27
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 4,078
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $121.0 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 1,011

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randy andy // Shutterstock

#16. Nevada

- Total WalletHub score: 47.63

- Immigrant workforce: #11
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 25.9% (354,349 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 192.48
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 5.1% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #7
--- Immigrant population: 566,400 (19.4% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $51,386
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 125,420 (20.9% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.38% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #22
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 14.4% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #50
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 2,520
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $80.8 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 834

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Kirk Hewlitt // Shutterstock

#15. Michigan

- Total WalletHub score: 49.35

- Immigrant workforce: #17
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 8.0% (367,477 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 430.12
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #20
--- Immigrant population: 671,105 (6.7% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $57,471
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 175,128 (6.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.06% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #6
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 20% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #14
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 33,236
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $1.2 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 13,855

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Tupungato // Shutterstock

#14. Pennsylvania

- Total WalletHub score: 50.07

- Immigrant workforce: #18
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 8.2% (502,606 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 652.14
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.1% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #26
--- Immigrant population: 865,720 (6.8% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $55,915
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 202,160 (5.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.09% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #8
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 20% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #6
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 51,818
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $2.1 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 27,530

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PAUL RATJE/AFP // Getty Images

#13. Texas

- Total WalletHub score: 50.23

- Immigrant workforce: #8
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 22.0% (2,860,779 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 563.70
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 4.8% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #11
--- Immigrant population: 4,736,692 (17.0% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $49,239
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 1,123,161 (19.0% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.22% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #20
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 14.2% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #25
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 81,893
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $2.2 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 25,034

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BlackMac // Shutterstock

#12. Washington D.C.

- Total WalletHub score: 55.16

- Immigrant workforce: #14
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 17.6% (64,929 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 1043.39
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 5.3% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #23
--- Immigrant population: 96,158 (14.1% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $78,329
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 15,301 (13.0% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.06% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #12
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 19% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #1
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 12,545
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $587.4 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 5,997

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Scott Olson // Getty Images

#11. Illinois

- Total WalletHub score: 55.18

- Immigrant workforce: #13
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 17.9% (1,112,556 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 608.42
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 6.3% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #14
--- Immigrant population: 1,797,717 (14.0% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $59,716
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 453,289 (14.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.16% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #11
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 18.1% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #7
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 53,724
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $2.0 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 25,855

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James Kirkikis // Shutterstock

#10. Connecticut

- Total WalletHub score: 55.19

- Immigrant workforce: #10
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 17.5% (316,283 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 664.53
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 5.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #10
--- Immigrant population: 513,646 (14.3% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $66,426
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 123,133 (13.6% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.19% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #13
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 18.5% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #10
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 14,832
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $588.9 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 6,916

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Chip Somodevilla // Getty Images

#9. Virginia

- Total WalletHub score: 55.35

- Immigrant workforce: #9
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 16.3% (672,080 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 545.21
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 5.5% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #12
--- Immigrant population: 1,038,160 (12.3% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $77,502
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 228,132 (11.0% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.22% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #9
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 22.4% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #28
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 20,452
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $757.9 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 9,143

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Matt Briney // Unsplash

#8. Florida

- Total WalletHub score: 57.48

- Immigrant workforce: #2
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 26.1% (2,412,994 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 379.07
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 8.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #3
--- Immigrant population: 4,227,210 (20.5% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $47,351
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 978,987 (19.8% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.36% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #21
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 17.2% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #33
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 45,957
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $1.6 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 16,458

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Ritu Manaj Jethani // Shutterstock

#7. Delaware

- Total WalletHub score: 57.64

- Immigrant workforce: #15
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 12.0% (54,047 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 800.21
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 3.9% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #19
--- Immigrant population: 87,378 (9.2% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $68,173
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 20,736 (8.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.03% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #2
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 18.7% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #5
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 7,395
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $180.5 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 1,940

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Karen Ducey // Getty Images

#6. Washington

- Total WalletHub score: 61.02

- Immigrant workforce: #6
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 17.7% (622,981 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 865.16
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 6.3% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #9
--- Immigrant population: 1,020,981 (14.0% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $66,062
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 231,127 (13.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.18% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #5
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 20% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #11
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 27,472
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $956.1 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 8,818

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ROD LAMKEY JR./AFP // Getty Images

#5. Maryland

- Total WalletHub score: 61.52

- Immigrant workforce: #7
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 19.6% (597,148 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 347.53
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 5.8% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #4
--- Immigrant population: 903,533 (15.1% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $79,141
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 204,595 (14.0% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.36% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #7
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 21% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #13
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 20,345
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $796.1 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 9,458

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IIP Photo Archive // Flickr

#4. Massachusetts

- Total WalletHub score: 66.36

- Immigrant workforce: #4
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 19.5% (697,766 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 746.89
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 4.6% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #8
--- Immigrant population: 1,129,732 (16.5% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $66,251
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 229,491 (14.2% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.21% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #10
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 17.8% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #1
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 71,098
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $3.2 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 38,799

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Drew Angerer // Getty Images

#3. New Jersey

- Total WalletHub score: 66.87

- Immigrant workforce: #1
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 28.2% (1,237,976 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 1019.89
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 9.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #5
--- Immigrant population: 1,968,060 (22.2% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $72,453
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 416,155 (20.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.27% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #4
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 22.3% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #22
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 23,456
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $823.1 million
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 9,674

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David McNew // Getty Images

#2. California

- Total WalletHub score: 68.01

- Immigrant workforce: #5
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 33.8% (6,194,029 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 684.12
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 10.2% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #1
--- Immigrant population: 10,537,529 (26.9% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $61,605
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 2,063,618 (29.1% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.54% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #3
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 17.3% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #9
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 161,693
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $6.8 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 74,814

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ANGELA WEISS/AFP // Getty Images

#1. New York

- Total WalletHub score: 70.84

- Immigrant workforce: #3
--- Immigrant workforce 16+: 27.7% (2,616,425 of total workers)
--- Work visas per capita: 598.04
--- Jobs generated by immigrant-owned businesses: 9.0% of total jobs

- Socioeconomic contribution rank: #6
--- Immigrant population: 4,439,893 (22.6% of total population)
--- Immigrant median annual household income: $58,006
--- Homes owned by immigrants: 761,539 (19.3% of total owned homes)
--- Immigrant-owned businesses income: 0.29% of total business revenues

- Brain gain & innovation rank: #1
--- Immigrants with a bachelor’s degree or higher: 17.8% of immigrant population age 25+

- International students rank: #1
--- International students enrolled in 2018-2019: 124,277
--- International student contribution to U.S. economy: $5.3 billion
--- Jobs created or supported by international students: 59,586

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