States with the most Confederate memorials

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June 26, 2020
Ty Wright // Getty Images

States with the most Confederate memorials

Dozens of Confederate memorials around the United States were taken down on the heels of a 2015 shooting at a church in Charleston, South Carolina, that killed nine Black parishioners including the church’s pastor.

Two years later, in defiance of plans to take down a statue of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee in Charlottesville, Virginia, hundreds of self-described neo-Nazis and white supremacists gathered for a “Unite the Right” rally. Clashes at that rally with counter-protesters peaked when a man drove his car into a crowd of counter-protestors, injuring 19 people and killing one woman named Heather Heyer. At the end of the August event, three were dead, dozens injured, and the ongoing debate over whether Confederate monuments ought to be protected or removed remained unresolved.

The debate has gained renewed fervor in 2020 since the May 25 death of a Black man named George Floyd, who was killed when a white police officer kneeled on Floyd’s neck for eight minutes and 49 seconds. Protests in cities and small towns around the country and world have included acts of civil disobedience such as covering Confederate monuments in graffiti or toppling Confederate statues and other monuments perceived as symbols of oppression and slavery. Across the United States, pressure has mounted to take such monuments away and out of the public eye, with dozens of municipalities already taking action to do so.

There remain more than 1,500 Confederate monuments in the U.S., according to the “Whose Heritage?” data project by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC). Stacker mined the SPLC’s research and ranked states according to which have the most Confederate memorials, including statues, parks, schools, streets, highways, or practically any structure which, in one way or another, honors a Confederate figure or the whole coalition of seceded states.

The first half-dozen Confederate monuments went up as soon as the Civil War ended in 1865. From then until 1900, most years saw between two and six monuments go up. Then, installations surged: In 1911 alone, 49 Confederate monuments were erected around the country, according to the SPLC. 1911 also coincides with the peak of Jim Crow laws designed to disadvantage Blacks and perpetuate segregation. Other surges appear throughout the first half of the 20th century, with pronounced increases in Confederate monuments going up throughout the civil rights movement and smaller increases at the turn of the 21st century and immediately following the election of President Barack Obama in 2008.

Various groups stand by claims that these memorials serve as important historical markers; others argue the memorials glorify white supremacists and ignore those who were hurt, enslaved, and killed by the scourge of racism in this country. Some historians suggest looking at how post-war Germany has handled its past: Concentration camps serve as museums that detail the horrors that occurred therein so people never forget what happened; with nary a Hitler or SS statue to be found. Instead, statues and monuments memorialize victims who were lost as well as those who survived.

Keep reading to find out where the most Confederate monuments still stand, and to learn about recent debates over what to do with them.

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J. Stephen Conn // Flickr

#32. South Dakota

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 1
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Gettysburg (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

Gettysburg, South Dakota, was mapped out by Confederate and Union war veterans in 1883. They had made their way into the Dakota Territory following the end of the Civil War and named the town after the famous battle back east. The police department in Gettysburg—known colloquially as "Where the Battle Wasn't"—in 2009 began using a uniform patch depicting both the U.S. and Confederate flags. The mayor and police department have defended the logo despite public outcry including from George Floyd’s uncle, who has lived in the town since 2017.

[Pictured: A sign in Gettysburg, South Dakota.]

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Jeffrey T. Kreulen // Shutterstock

#31. Nevada

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 1
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Snake Range Mountains (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

The University of Nevada at Las Vegas in mid-June removed its “Hey Reb!” statue from its campus and is considering changing its “Rebel” mascot (that originally appeared as a wolf donning a Confederate uniform).

Elsewhere in Nevada, the Jeff Davis Peak in Great Basin National Park was dedicated in 1855 to Jefferson Davis who, at the time, was secretary of war under President Franklin Pierce. Davis also worked as a U.S. senator for Mississippi but resigned in 1861 just before being elected to lead the Confederacy. In 1862, Davis selected Robert E. Lee to be the commander of the Army of Northern Virginia. in his lifetime, Davis never visited Nevada.

In June 2019, the United States Geological Survey voted unanimously to return the peak to its original name, Doso Doyabi.

[Pictured: Doso Doyabi and Wheeler Peaks in Great Basin National Park, Nevada.]

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Plazak // Wikimedia Commons

#30. New Mexico

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 1
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Fort Craig (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 3

A Confederate monument several miles from the Fort Craig National Historic Site in New Mexico was erected by the Texas Division of the United Daughters of the Confederacy in 1936. The monument purports to be in memory of Confederate soldiers known and unknown who died in the Battle of Valverde during the Civil War on Feb. 21, 1862.

The Confederacy won the Battle of Valverde, but not without 36 deaths, 150 injuries, and the loss of supply wagons that were burned. Confederate troops from that battle went on to capture Albuquerque and Santa Fe before being defeated by Union soldiers at Glorieta Pass March 26–28, 1862.

In addition to battles over Confederate monuments, Native Americans in New Mexico in June successfully pushed for the removal of two statues depicting Spanish conquistadors.

[Pictured: Former officer’s quarters at the Fort Craig National Historic Site in New Mexico.]

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Public Domain // Wikimedia Commons

#29. Indiana

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 1
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Corydon (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 2

Indiana’s one Confederate marker stands in memory of the 11 men who were killed and 40 who were injured while fighting in “Morgan’s Raid,” Gen. John Hunt Morgan’s Confederate Cavalry Division that overwhelmed Union Troops during the Battle of Corydon on July 9, 186. It was the only battle fought in the state and was won by the Confederacy.

Gen. Morgan was known for his violent and chaotic raids, which included taking prisoners, stealing supplies, extorting money, burning buildings, and breaking telegraph and railroad lines in Union territories. Morgan’s Raid was the Civil War’s longest cavalry raid, carving a path of destruction across more than 1,000 miles.

[Pictured: A historic marker in downtown Corydon, Indiana.]

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Jon Roanhaus // Wikimedia Commons

#28. Iowa

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 1
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Bentonsport (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

The Bentonsport monument wasn’t put up until 2007 to honor a Confederate general who lived there for one year when he was a young boy. The memorial has been controversial since its installation, with renewed pushes for its removal following the 2017 “Unite the Right” rally in Charlottesville.

In Bloomfield, three rocks mark the furthest point reached by Confederate soldiers coming out of the South. That marker was installed in 2005.

[Pictured: A general view of Bentonsport, Iowa.]

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duckeesue // Shutterstock

#27. Delaware

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 1
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Georgetown (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

A petition launched in June 2020 calls for the removal of the Confederate monument and flag standing in Delaware outside the Nutter Marvel Carriage Museum in Georgetown. The monument and flag have been on the site since 2007.

The Georgetown Historical Society, which owns the property the monument is sitting on, does not in fact own or maintain the installation—although funding for that group was pulled in 2019 amid objections from Delaware Sen. Trey Paradee over the monument and flag.

[Pictured: A general view of historic buildings in Georgetown, Delaware.]

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Allyn // Wikimedia Commons

#26. Washington

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 2
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Bellingham (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 1

East Wenatchee, Washington, is home to Lee Elementary School, named in 1955 for Gen. Robert E. Lee at the same time other Confederate monuments and memorials were going up around the country in defiance of the civil rights movement. There was much debate in 2015 over whether to change the name, but the community opted to keep it as-is.

In Bellingham, Pickett Road was named for George Pickett, who resigned from the U.S. military when the Civil War broke out and became a colonel for the Confederacy. And just outside Ridgefield in Clark County, Jefferson Davis Park pays homage to the president of the Confederate States of America. The monuments there once marked the northern and southern points of State Route 99. The park is owned by a group called Sons of Confederate Veterans.

Following the 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia, and related counter-protests, the Sons of Confederate Veterans said they had received multiple death threats along with calls to remove the monuments.

[Pictured: Whatcom Creek Falls run under the Prospect Creek Bridge (formerly Pickett Street Bridge) in Bellingham, Washington.]

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Montanabw // Wikimedia Commons

#25. Montana

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 2
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Dillon (2 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 1

Almost three years after its removal, Montana in April 2020 replaced its Confederate Memorial Fountain with The Equity Fountain. The monument to the Confederacy stood for more than a century but had come under fire along with hundreds of others following the violence that erupted in Charlottesville in 2017.

Elsewhere in the state, other memorials remain, including the Jeff Davis Creek in Dillon.

[Pictured: The Confederate Memorial Fountain in Helena, Montana, photographed in April 2017.]

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Jonathan Wiggs/The Boston Globe via Getty Images

#24. Massachusetts

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 2
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Martha's Vineyard (2 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 1

Two plaques that once honored Confederate soldiers on a statue in Oak Bluffs on Martha’s Vineyard were moved to the Martha’s Vineyard Museum in 2019. The plaques had been at the base of a statue depicting a Union soldier, causing confusion over the last century as many people misunderstood which side the statue represented.

A Confederate monument in Boston Harbor Islands, dedicated in 1963, was removed in 2017.

[Pictured: The Civil War statue in Oak Bluffs, Massachusetts, on Martha's Vineyard is pictured on April 24, 2019.]

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Jerry Edmundson // Flickr

#23. Pennsylvania

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 3
- City with the most Confederate symbols: McConnellsburg (3 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

Two road markets installed in 1929 and 1930 (respectively) in McConnellsburg, Pennsylvania, pay homage to Confederate soldiers.

The marker on U.S. 522 commemorates Confederate soldiers who escaped to the town via the nearby mountain following a fire in nearby Chambersburg in 1864 that was authorized by Brigadier Gen. John McCausland. The Rebel officers hid out in a farmhouse in McConnellsburg and the soldiers stayed nearby while keeping watch for Union troops. On PA-16, a marker denotes where two Confederate soldiers were buried after being killed in 1863 in what was supposedly the first Civil War battle in Pennsylvania.

Both markers came under fresh scrutiny in 2017 following the Unite the Right Rally and its counter-protests in Charlottesville.

[Pictured: A historic marker on the town square in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania.]

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Andrew Lichtenstein/Corbis via Getty Images

#22. New York

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 3
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Brooklyn (2 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 2

A number of Confederate memorials were removed from New York City following the 2017 Unite the Right rally. These included a plaque installed in 1912 denoting the location where Gen. Robert E. Lee planted a tree in Brooklyn, and sculptures of Lee (dedicated in 1923) and fellow Confederate Gen. Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson (dedicated in 1957) that stood in Bronx Community College’s Hall of Fame for Great Americans. In 2018, a statue in Central Park of J. Marion Sims—a famous 19th-century doctor and gynecologist who conducted experimental surgeries on enslaved women between 1845 and 1849—was also taken down.

Amid the swell of protests following the death of George Floyd, several other monuments throughout the city have come under renewed scrutiny including the statue of President Theodore Roosevelt in front of the American Museum of Natural History. That monument, depicting the former president flanked by a Native American man and an African man, is perceived by many as perpetuating Roosevelt’s well-documented beliefs in eugenics and a racial hierarchy—the statue also goes against Roosevelt’s own wishes that his likeness never be used in any statues.

[Pictured: City workers remove a statue of J. Marion Sims from Central Park in New York City on April 17, 2018.]

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TASOS KATOPODIS/AFP via Getty Images

#21. Maryland

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 3
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Annapolis (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 7

Several of the Confederate monuments throughout the state are hardly historic; with some dedicated in the 1990s and early 2000s. In June 2020, calls were renewed to remove Confederate memorials throughout Maryland, including a Civil War plaque that was installed in the State House in 1964.

Former Baltimore Mayor Stephanie Rawlings-Blake in 2015 created a commission to review all Confederate monuments in the city and make recommendations including preservation in place, the addition of new signage, relocation, or removal.

Following the 2017 Unite the Right rally, four Confederate statues were removed from Baltimore and a statue in Annapolis depicting a Supreme Court justice who had defended slavery was also taken down.

[Pictured: A family takes photos at the Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson monument base in Wyman Park Dell in Baltimore, Maryland, after it was removed by the city on Aug. 16, 2017.]

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Marty Nelson // Shutterstock

#20. Idaho

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 3
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Boise (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

The Cathedral of the Rockies in Boise announced in June 2020 that it would remove a stained glass window depicting Gen. Robert E. Lee that was installed in 1960. Outside the city, Robert E. Lee Creek and Robert E. Lee Campground have received renewed criticisms and calls for renaming.

Idaho is also home to the city of Leesburg, dedicated in 1855 and named for the Confederate general.

[Pictured: A view of the First United Methodist Cathedral of the Rockies in Boise, Idaho.]

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Bruce Faling // Flickr

#19. Ohio

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 5
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Milford (3 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 1

Ohio lawmakers in June 2020 refused to ban Confederate flags and other symbols at county fairs, but Gov. Mike DeWine on June 23 said he wasn’t opposed to removing Confederate statues and memorials throughout the state.

The Robert E. Lee Dixie Highway Monument was removed in 2017 after standing for almost a century; several roads named for Confederate generals Robert E. Lee and Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson remain in the Southwest corner of the state.

[Pictured: A historical marker at Camp Chase, Columbus, Ohio.]

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Albert Campbell // Shutterstock

#18. California

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 5
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Alpine County (1 symbol)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 3

Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks in California announced in late June that all references to Gen. Robert E. Lee would be removed from printed and online materials and exhibits. In Fort Bragg, proposals are underway to rename the coastal California town named after Confederate Gen. Braxton Bragg who enslaved more than 100 people. The town was named in 1857, before the Civil War, for Bragg—who before trading sides had been a commanding officer in the U.S. military and who had fought in the Mexican-American War. Bragg was a controversial figure in the Civil War with a lasting reputation for his short fuse and inept leadership.

[Pictured: A welcome sign upon entering Fort Bragg, California.]

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Jasperdo // Flickr

#17. Arizona

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 5
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Phoenix (2 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

Military veterans in Arizona on June 24 called on Gov. Doug Ducey to take down Confederate monuments in the state capitol. The monument in question, which reads “A nation that forgets its past has no future,” was a gift from the Daughters of the Confederacy in the early ‘60s. In February 2019, the NAACP also contacted Ducey about taking down six Confederate monuments standing on state land.

[Pictured: The Confederate Troops Memorial at Wesley Bolin Memorial Plaza in Phoenix, Arizona.]

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Mark Wilson // Getty Images

#16. Washington DC

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 10
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Washington (10 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 2

The statue of Confederate Brigadier Gen. Albert Pike in Washington D.C. was dropped by protestors on June 20 and set on fire. It was the only outdoor Confederate monument in the nation’s capital; 11 more remain indoors throughout the city.

[Pictured: Tourists walk past a bronze statue of Confederate President Jefferson Davis inside of Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol Building in Washington D.C.]

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Sharon Baker, EdD, The University of Tulsa // Wikimedia Commons

#15. Oklahoma

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 13
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Durant (2 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 4

The Cherokee Nation on June 14 removed two Confederate monuments from Capitol Square that the Daughters of the Confederacy had installed almost 100 years ago. Principal Chief Chuck Hoskin Jr. said discussions are underway to commission Cherokee artists to create a new monument to the Trail of Tears in the same spot the Confederate memorials stood.

Elsewhere in Oklahoma, other monuments have come under fire for potential removal as other Confederate monuments around the country come down.

[Pictured: The Civil War Monument on Capitol Square in Tahlequah, Oklahoma, photographed in 2016.]

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Larry J. Summary // Wikimedia Commons

#14. Missouri

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 19
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Keytesville (2 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 4

The Cape Girardeau Historic Preservation Commission on June 23 voted unanimously to remove a monument of the Confederate flag with the initials “C.S.A.” (Confederate States of America) above it. The monument had been installed in 1931 and moved to its current position in Cape Girardeau in 1995.

[Pictured: A Confederate war memorial in Cape Girardeau, Missouri, photographed in 2008.]

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Ty Wright // Getty Images

#13. West Virginia

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 21
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Charleston (6 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

West Virginia, the only state created in the Civil War when it seceded from Virginia to join the Union, is home to 21 Confederate memorials—many of which were donated by the Daughters of the Confederacy during the civil rights movement and Jim Crow era. The Harrison County Commission on June 17 denied a motion for the removal of a statue depicting Gen. Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson in Clarksburg.

[Pictured: A passerby stops to take a picture of the statue of Confederate Gen. Stonewall Jackson at the West Virginia State Capitol Complex on Aug.16, 2017, in Charleston, West Virginia.]

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Bill Pugliano // Getty Images

#12. Kentucky

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 37
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Erlanger (4 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 5

During the removal of a marble statue of Confederate President Jefferson Davis from the Kentucky state capitol in June, officials discovered a newspaper dated Oct. 20, 1936. The clipping underscores the fact that rather than being parts of actual Civil War history, most Confederate monuments were installed more than a half-century after the Civil War.

Two other Confederate monuments in Kentucky were relocated in 2019: one of Confederate Gen. John Cabell Breckinridge, who also served as secretary of war, and another of Gen. John Hunt Morgan.

[Pictured: A monument to John Hunt Morgan, a Confederate general during the Civil War, stands near the old Historic Lexington Courthouse Aug. 14, 2017, in Lexington, Kentucky.]

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Ted Swedenburg // Flickr

#11. Arkansas

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 65
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Little Rock (17 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 2

The city of Little Rock on June 18 removed a Confederate monument called “Memorial to Company A, Capital Guard” that had stood since 1911. The state has 34 Civil War properties that are registered with the National Register of Historic Places.

[Pictured: A monument to the Confederacy in the town square in Bentonville, Arkansas.]

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Joe Raedle // Getty Images

#10. Florida

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 67
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Jacksonville (11 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 13

Gadsden County’s commission in early June voted unanimously to remove a 136-year-old Confederate monument. On June 11, another Confederate monument in Jacksonville was removed. Elsewhere, groups are voting to keep Confederate memorials: The commission in Walton County—which is 90% white—agreed on June 23 to keep a Confederate flag that has since the civil rights era hung outside the courthouse.

[Pictured: A Confederate monument in Lee Park in Pensacola, Florida, photographed in 2017.]

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Mario Tama // Getty Images

#9. Louisiana

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 83
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Baton Rouge (12 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 5

The East Baton Rouge Parish School Board on June 18 voted unanimously to change the name of Lee High School. The superintendent was slated to assemble a school renaming committee. And on June 16, the Iberville Parish Council voted unanimously to take down a statue in front of the courthouse that has been there for more than 100 years with the inscription “The principles for which they fought live eternally.”

[Pictured: In New Orleans, a woman bikes past the pedestal which held Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's statue, which was removed in 2017.]

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J. Stephen Conn // Flickr

#8. Tennessee

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 105
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Franklin (12 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 9

Protestors on May 30 pulled down a statue of Edward Carmack—a pro-lynching newspaper editor and politician—at the state capitol that had been up for nine decades. That statue, along with the dozens of Confederate symbols and other monuments throughout the state, has been controversial for years but received newly focused attention since the start of the George Floyd protests around the country and world.

Throughout the state, petitions and civil action are underway to do away with Confederate monuments. A high-schooler in Haywood County is working to have a Confederate statue removed from the Haywood County Courthouse; while a Change.org petition begun in mid-June that seeks to replace all of Tennessee’s Confederate statues with Dolly Parton monuments had more than 21,000 signatures as of June 26.

[Pictured: The Confederate Monument in the Franklin, Tennessee, town center stands across from the Williamson County Courthouse.]

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JNix // Shutterstock

#7. Alabama

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 123
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Montgomery (19 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 4

In Birmingham and Mobile, Confederate monuments have been removed amid recent protests; those removals may be subject to fines under Alabama’s Memorial Preservation Act. That 2017 law was designed to prevent Confederate statues from being moved or schools from being renamed.

Alabama’s Confederate Memorial Park Chilton County houses the state’s sole Confederate Soldiers’ Home, which was in operation from 1902 to 1939. The park also has a Confederate artifacts museum, burial grounds for 300 Confederate soldiers, and an on-site library that is managed by the Sons of Confederate Veterans organization. The park has been the subject of recent calls for defunding.

[Pictured: A large confederate monument on located Capitol Hill in Montgomery, Alabama.]

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jmanaugh3 // Shutterstock

#6. Mississippi

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 147
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Moss Point (17 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 0

State officials on June 18 agreed to relocate a Confederate statue, prominently located on the University of Mississippi campus, to a campus cemetery. The monument was the site of a 1962 riot that touched off when the first Black student tried to enroll; that riot killed two people. Groups voted for the statue’s removal in 2019. The university seeks to fundraise around $1 million to move the monument, install a Black Civil War soldiers memorial, and add headstones in the cemetery.

[Pictured: A Confederate statue on the Mississippi University Campus in Oxford, Mississippi.]

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Bryan Regan // Shutterstock

#5. North Carolina

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 168
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Wilmington (33 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 8

The state capitol’s 75-foot Confederate monument, featuring a Confederate infantryman standing atop a giant granite pillar, was taken down on June 23. It had been erected in 1895. The action came on the heels of protesters pulling down two statues of Confederate soldiers near the monument and dragging them through downtown Raleigh. It took three days for workers to remove the 8,500-pound column of granite beneath the statue.

The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill on June 17 lifted a moratorium established in 2015 that forbade changing the names of campus buildings and locations.

[Pictured: A crew removes a Confederate monument from the Capitol grounds in Raleigh, North Carolina, on June 20, 2020.]

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Epics // Getty Images

#4. South Carolina

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 194
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Columbia (38 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 2

Following the 2015 church murder of eight Black parishioners and a pastor, South Carolina’s Confederate flag on the state capitol lawn was removed. A full one-third of the monuments on statehouse grounds today relate to the Confederacy or segregation.

A 2000 bill called the Heritage Act makes it so a two-thirds vote by South Carolina’s General Assembly is required to make any changes to building names or monuments.

[Pictured: A statue of Confederate cavalry leader Wade Hampton III stands on the grounds of the South Carolina State House in Columbia.]

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CHANDAN KHANNA/AFP via Getty Images

#3. Georgia

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 201
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Atlanta (18 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 8

Georgia law prohibits moving monuments in most cases. One exception is the relocation of a monument in order to carry out planned construction. Seizing on this loophole, government officials in Athens-Clarke County are considering a crosswalk expansion in downtown Athens near the University of Georgia where a contentious monument honoring dead Confederate soldiers has stood since 1872. The location has been a lightning rod for protestors, some of whom graffitied the monument, and clashes with police. On at least one recent occasion, pepper spray was used by police against demonstrators.

If the proposal passes, the obelisk would be relocated to a nearby site where a small Civil War battle took place.

[Pictured: Crew members work to remove the 30-foot Confederate monument, which was brought down on June 19, 2020, in Decatur, Georgia.]

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LAURA BUCKMAN/Laura Buckman/AFP/AFP via Getty Images

#2. Texas

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 207
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Alvin (8 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 20

Petitions throughout Texas are calling for the removal or relocation of dozens of Confederate monuments, including in Marshall, Texarkana, and Austin. Several of the calls are for the Confederate monuments—many of which are on government property—to be moved to museums or historic cemeteries rather than on the front steps of official buildings or in public view.

[Pictured: Workers remove a statue of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee from Robert E. Lee Park in Dallas, Texas, on Sept. 14, 2017.]

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Tasos Katopodis // Getty Images

#1. Virginia

- Total number of Confederate symbols: 242
- City with the most Confederate symbols: Alexandria (29 symbols)
- Number of symbol removals since 1880: 14

Virginia, home to the most Confederate symbols in the United States, has been a central focus of protests that erupted worldwide following the death of George Floyd. Protestors took it upon themselves to take down monuments to Confederacy President Jefferson Davis and Christopher Columbus.

Virginia Gov. Ralph Northam on June 4 ordered the removal of a 60-foot monument of Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee that stood downtown for 130 years. The move came amid extensive protests and widespread defacing of the sculpture. Hundreds of photographs taken following extensive graffiti work done on that and other Confederate monuments throughout Richmond depict families, dancers, couples, artists, and activists posing in front of the transformed symbols. The bronze statue of Lee in Richmond is slated for removal ahead of the stone base of the monument.

[Pictured: People gather at the Robert E. Lee Monument on June 18, 2020, in Richmond, Virginia.]

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