Most common jobs held by women today

Written by:
September 25, 2020
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Most common jobs held by women today

It's a fact: Women in 2020 earn just 81 cents for every dollar a man makes, according to PayScale's Gender Pay Gap Report for 2020. The gender wage gap has long been an area of interest for researchers who try to find reasons other than discrimination to explain the long-term discrepancy in wages between men and women doing the same job.

A 2016 report from the Economic Policy Institute found that women have historically been steered into certain career paths (think: nurses, teachers, childcare workers), and that, in turn, can lead to different outcomes in pay and other factors. What's more, when women start occupying more positions in a field, the average pay in those jobs tends to go on a downward trend. Overall, the phenomenon "hurts women across the board."

Understanding which occupations have a majority-women workforce is one step toward closing the gender wage gap. Using 2018 data, released in December 2019, from the Department of Labor's Women's Bureau, Stacker compiled a list of 100 jobs where the workforce primarily consists of women. The jobs are ranked by the percent of total workers that women make up, and ties are broken by the number of women workers in that occupation. Any jobs that had "all other" in their name were excluded from the list, as these are groupings of jobs, and the data may not accurately reflect every job in that grouping. Wage data for every occupation is also available in each slide, comparing the median earnings of men and women. Even though women hold most of the jobs in these occupations, they earn less than men for all but six jobs on this list. To help understand why the gender wage gap continues to endure in most professions, Stacker looked at articles from trade publications, news media, scientific journals, and other sources for details. Finally, we looked at the Occupational Outlook Handbook from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for more information on each job type.

Keep reading to learn more about the 100 most common jobs held by women in the U.S. today.

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#100. Veterinarians

- Total women workers: 43,354 (61.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $111,080
- Median earnings for women in this job: $93,065 (83.8% of men's earnings)

A 2019 study from Lancaster University found that a rising percentage of women are entering the veterinary profession. But while 76% of graduates from vet school are women, a disproportionately low proportion of those graduates attain upper-level positions in the industry.

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#99. First-line supervisors of office and administrative support workers

- Total women workers: 705,102 (62.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $60,909
- Median earnings for women in this job: $47,857 (78.6% of men's earnings)

People in this field directly supervise employees' work in clerical and administrative support roles, sometimes coordinating their activities. Many people with this role are employed in the finance and insurance and healthcare and social assistance industries.

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#98. Respiratory therapists

- Total women workers: 55,789 (62.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $62,387
- Median earnings for women in this job: $55,825 (89.5% of men's earnings)

Workers in this occupation help take care of patients who have difficulty breathing. The Institute for Women's Policy Research suggests that respiratory therapists are an ideal target job for women because the job is expected to have growing employment rates over the coming years and present a potential way for workers to increase their earnings without pursuing a bachelor's degree.

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#97. Cardiovascular technologists and technicians

- Total women workers: 19,719 (62.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $76,643
- Median earnings for women in this job: $39,659 (51.7% of men's earnings)

Cardiovascular technologists and technicians create images and conduct tests that involve a patient's heart and lungs. Most people in this occupation work in hospitals. It's a growing field, expected to expand 5% between 2019 and 2029.

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#96. Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks

- Total women workers: 55,080 (62.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $25,718
- Median earnings for women in this job: $24,047 (93.5% of men's earnings)

People in this occupation take care of guests' needs, like room assignments, keys, relaying messages, confirming reservations, and collecting payments, at hotels, motels, and resorts. Given that hotels need workers 24/7, this field could be a good fit for women who need a flexible schedule to accommodate family needs.

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#95. Insurance underwriters

- Total women workers: 61,101 (62.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $79,979
- Median earnings for women in this job: $62,092 (77.6% of men's earnings)

Insurance companies rely on underwriters to evaluate applicants and determine the terms of insurance policies. The occupation is typically a full-time role, and most insurance underwriters do their jobs in offices.

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#94. Tutors

- Total women workers: 13,792 (62.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $41,602
- Median earnings for women in this job: $30,406 (73.1% of men's earnings)

Tutors typically work with students individually to help them focus on academic needs in a specific area, such as math or writing. Women don't just dominate the occupation in the U.S.—they also outnumber male tutors abroad. A 2016 study from ManyTutors found that requests for female tutors are 2.5 times higher than demand for male tutors, according to the Straits Times.

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#93. Tax examiners and collectors, and revenue agents

- Total women workers: 28,692 (62.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $61,774
- Median earnings for women in this job: $50,723 (82.1% of men's earnings)

Folks in this profession figure out how much a person or business owes in taxes and then works to collect the government's money. You typically need to hold a bachelor's degree in a finance-focused field, such as accounting, to be competitive for these jobs. Jobs for tax examiners and collectors and revenue agents are expected to decline 4% by 2029 due to government budget cuts.

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#92. Public relations specialists

- Total women workers: 73,742 (62.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $81,412
- Median earnings for women in this job: $66,068 (81.2% of men's earnings)

The idea of becoming a public relations specialist may appeal to women because it is a collaborative and social field—qualities that are socialized into many women in society, reports The Atlantic. These professionals help their clients create a positive public image, often collaborating closely with journalists.

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#91. Public relations and fundraising managers

- Total women workers: 35,333 (63.1% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $82,433
- Median earnings for women in this job: $76,334 (92.6% of men's earnings)

Like public relations specialists, public relations managers are also responsible for enhancing their client's or employer's public image. Fundraising managers aim to bring in charitable donations for a particular organization. These can be demanding jobs—managers in these occupations shouldn't be surprised to clock in more than the typical 40-hour workweek.

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#90. Clinical and counseling psychologists

- Total women workers: 10,053 (63.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $101,243
- Median earnings for women in this job: $73,402 (72.5% of men's earnings)

Psychologists study the behavior and emotions of people and record how they relate to each other. Psychology was once a male-dominated profession, but as of 2011, women earned more doctorates in the field than their male counterparts by a factor of three to one, according to the American Psychological Association.

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#89. Physical therapists

- Total women workers: 119,211 (63.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $82,107
- Median earnings for women in this job: $75,803 (92.3% of men's earnings)

When a person is sick or injured, they may work with a physical therapist to help improve movement or find ways to manage pain. They usually work in a private office or in a hospital, spending a lot of "time on their feet." Good communication skills, compassion, and strong observational skills can help a person succeed as a physical therapist.

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#88. Education and childcare administrators

- Total women workers: 510,620 (63.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $82,848
- Median earnings for women in this job: $66,300 (80.0% of men's earnings)

People in this occupation help plan and coordinate activities for kids in preschool or at a childcare center. The fact that jobs in this field are primarily held by women further amplifies the gender disparities in childcare in general in the U.S. Data analyzed by the Pew Research Center in 2013 found that stay-at-home mothers have significantly less leisure time than stay-at-home fathers.

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#87. Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations

- Total women workers: 46,385 (63.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $57,799
- Median earnings for women in this job: $50,497 (87.4% of men's earnings)

This occupation encompasses a wide variety of workers in the healthcare field who don't fall into traditional categories. They are most likely to work at a general or surgical hospital, the federal executive branch, or at a university. One of the top-paying markets for this occupation is Rochester, Minn., the location of a major campus of the Mayo Clinic.

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#86. Telemarketers

- Total women workers: 16,769 (63.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $33,050
- Median earnings for women in this job: $25,722 (77.8% of men's earnings)

If you get an unexpected call from a salesperson, the chances are good that you're going to hear a woman's voice on the other end of the line. Jobs in this occupation may have appeal to women because they have alternative hours to the typical 9-to-5 job and can be done from home, making it easier for workers to manage family needs.

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#85. Residential advisors

- Total women workers: 17,254 (64.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $36,693
- Median earnings for women in this job: $28,967 (78.9% of men's earnings)

Employed at group homes and college dorms, residential advisors help plan activities for people living in these facilities and make arrangements for things like repairs and maintenance. Their role can also be care-focused, requiring them to help residents solve problems or make referrals to counseling resources. New York and California have the highest employment levels for residential advisors.

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#84. Physician assistants

- Total women workers: 64,003 (64.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $122,159
- Median earnings for women in this job: $103,570 (84.8% of men's earnings)

Physician assistants work closely with both doctors and patients to diagnose illnesses, manage treatment plans, write prescriptions, and sometimes serve as a primary healthcare provider, according to the American Academy of Physician Assistants. Women have climbed rapidly in this field. By 1972, 19.9% of all people in school to become physicians assistants were women. And by 1982, men and women were graduating programs in the field at roughly the same rate, according to the Physician Assistant Life.

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#83. Waiters and waitresses

- Total women workers: 502,043 (64.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $27,907
- Median earnings for women in this job: $22,577 (80.9% of men's earnings)

Restaurants rely on waiters and waitresses to take orders from customers and bring the food from the kitchen to the tables. Because people in this occupation serve as the face of a restaurant, appearance is important. In fact, good-looking servers can earn $1,261 more in tips each year than their "unattractive" counterparts, according to economist Matt Parrett, who studied the subject.

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#82. Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians

- Total women workers: 70,597 (65.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $48,353
- Median earnings for women in this job: $39,780 (82.3% of men's earnings)

People in this occupation tend to work at hospitals, including general medical and surgical, as well as specialty hospitals, per Data USA. The average age of women working in miscellaneous health technologist and technician jobs is 40.6 years old, compared with 42.1 for men. Employers in Alexandria, Virginia, tend to pay the most for these types of jobs.

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#81. Other community and social service specialists

- Total women workers: 39,918 (65.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $55,186
- Median earnings for women in this job: $46,049 (83.4% of men's earnings)

Community and social service specialists help people find programs through the government and other organizations that can help them meet certain needs, such as substance use disorder counseling or affordable housing, according to Bryant & Stratton College. While some jobs in this field may require special certifications or degrees, others have lower entry barriers, making it a viable career choice for someone who hasn't gone to college.

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#80. Other healthcare support workers

- Total women workers: 70,018 (65.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $36,782
- Median earnings for women in this job: $35,036 (95.3% of men's earnings)

Workers in this occupation are primarily employed by general medical hospitals and those who specialize in surgery. California has the highest employment levels for other healthcare support workers, followed by Texas, New Jersey, Florida, and New York. The highest salaries for these jobs can be found in Washington D.C.

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#79. Radiologic technologists and technicians

- Total women workers: 102,279 (65.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $63,795
- Median earnings for women in this job: $54,523 (85.5% of men's earnings)

Radiologic technologists and technicians are responsible for taking X-rays, running CAT scans, and putting nonradioactive materials into a person's bloodstream to help diagnose certain diseases. According to Dr. Kimberly Applegate, a former professor of radiology at Emory University School of Medicine, jobs in this field give women a strong foundation for growing into higher-paying professions.

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#78. Laundry and dry-cleaning workers

- Total women workers: 70,071 (65.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $28,989
- Median earnings for women in this job: $21,930 (75.6% of men's earnings)

Workers in this field launder business and household articles, like clothing, leather, carpets, rugs, and linens, usually with dry-cleaning or washing machines. While most laundry and dry-cleaning workers are employed by businesses that specialize in this service, others work in hotels, nursing care facilities, hospitals, and residences.

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#77. Customer service representatives

- Total women workers: 1,344,403 (66.0% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $39,259
- Median earnings for women in this job: $34,868 (88.8% of men's earnings)

Businesses rely on customer service representatives to interact with customers, including dealing with complaints, processing orders, and fielding questions. Research from the MIT Sloan School of Management suggests that this women-dominated occupation tends to stay that way because female customer service representatives are more likely to refer other women for job openings at their company.

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#76. Physical therapist assistants and aides

- Total women workers: 38,414 (66.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $51,807
- Median earnings for women in this job: $46,237 (89.2% of men's earnings)

Working closely with physical therapists, these assistants and aides help patients manage pain and increase mobility after a disease or injury. Physical therapist assistants and aides are expected to grow 29% in the 10 years leading up to 2029—significantly faster than the average projected growth for all other occupations, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

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#75. Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers

- Total women workers: 25,873 (66.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $31,016
- Median earnings for women in this job: $28,029 (90.4% of men's earnings)

Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers take care of garments, doing everything from designs and alterations to repairs and fittings. The growing popularity of tailored clothes for women is also fueling a rise in the number of women tailors, according to a March 2020 article in the Daily Mail.

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#74. Interpreters and translators

- Total women workers: 30,643 (66.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $51,981
- Median earnings for women in this job: $40,769 (78.4% of men's earnings)

Interpreters and translators are the go-to people when a person or company needs information converted to a different language. They can be found in various settings, including schools, courts, hospitals, and conference centers. Research conducted in Denmark in 2018 found that while male and female interpreters and translators perceive their profession's status equally, women were more likely to feel that laypeople saw their occupation as low status, compared with how their male counterparts saw things.

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#73. Recreation workers

- Total women workers: 67,474 (67.0% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $40,224
- Median earnings for women in this job: $31,298 (77.8% of men's earnings)

Recreation workers typically lead fun- and fitness-focused activities for people at summer camps, parks, and nursing homes. Qualities like good communication skills, flexible attitude, physical strength, and leadership skills can help a worker excel in this occupation. The growing interest in lifelong well-being creates demand for recreation workers, which are expected to see employment grow by 10% through 2029.

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#72. Administrative services managers

- Total women workers: 29,068 (67.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $77,542
- Median earnings for women in this job: $67,049 (86.5% of men's earnings)

Administrative services managers are responsible for planning, directing, and coordinating activities in order to help their place of employment run efficiently. They might do things like arrange mail distribution, keep records, allocate supplies, and plan budgets. A bachelor's degree in business or a similar field is usually required to land a job as an administrative services manager.

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#71. Psychiatric technicians

- Total women workers: 31,860 (67.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $35,620
- Median earnings for women in this job: $32,442 (91.1% of men's earnings)

People in this occupation care for people in need, such as those with a developmental disability or mental illness. They spend a lot of time on their feet and usually work in a hospital. You usually need a postsecondary certificate to become a psychiatric technician.

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#70. Other psychologists

- Total women workers: 58,818 (67.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $91,009
- Median earnings for women in this job: $75,934 (83.4% of men's earnings)

This occupation encompasses psychologists who don't fall into more common roles, like clinical or school psychologists. According to VeryWell Mind, they work as managers at businesses, marketing researchers, consultants, or even as a mental health professional at a religious organization. Most psychologist roles require candidates to have a doctoral degree.

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#69. Public safety telecommunicators

- Total women workers: 53,434 (68.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $46,824
- Median earnings for women in this job: $40,790 (87.1% of men's earnings)

Public safety telecommunicators serve as dispatchers for the 911 emergency line. They face a unique set of on-the-job challenges as they collaborate with various state and local agencies to address a public safety concern. You may need to take a training course to break into this occupation.

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#68. Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors

- Total women workers: 46,865 (68.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $42,305
- Median earnings for women in this job: $42,012 (99.3% of men's earnings)

Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors help people cope with addictions related to drugs and alcohol and some behavioral issues. They can be found in centers that specifically deal with substance abuse and mental health and in hospitals and residential facilities. Amid both the opioid crisis and a growing understanding of substance use disorders, this job is expected to grow 25% by 2029.

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#67. Social and community service managers

- Total women workers: 227,200 (68.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $67,005
- Median earnings for women in this job: $55,766 (83.2% of men's earnings)

Organizations that work to improve public well-being rely on social and community service managers to coordinate and run their programs. A bachelor's degree in something like social work or public health is usually enough to qualify you for a job in this occupation, but some positions may seek out candidates with a master's degree. Analytical skills, communication skills, and managerial abilities will help you succeed in this job.

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#66. Fundraisers

- Total women workers: 53,951 (69.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $75,546
- Median earnings for women in this job: $65,731 (87.0% of men's earnings)

On a mission to bring in money for an organization, fundraisers often organize events and run campaigns to appeal to donors. While women hold the majority of jobs in this occupation, around 80% of senior fundraising positions are held by men, according to a 2017 report from WFPL.

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#65. Sewing machine operators

- Total women workers: 81,094 (70.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $28,745
- Median earnings for women in this job: $25,302 (88.0% of men's earnings)

People in this occupation use machines to join, decorate, reinforce, or manipulate garments and other fabric-based goods. California, followed by Texas and North Carolina, has the highest employment levels for sewing machine operators. Workers in this occupation face a high likelihood of being replaced by automation in the future, according to Replaced By Robot.

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#64. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians

- Total women workers: 177,774 (70.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $52,290
- Median earnings for women in this job: $48,519 (92.8% of men's earnings)

Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians gather samples of fluids, tissue, and bodily substances to perform medical tests at hospitals and doctors' offices. To land a job in this field, you'll usually need to graduate from a four-year college or university with a degree in medical technology, life sciences, or a similar major. The government anticipates employment in this occupation to grow by 7% by 2029.

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#63. Title examiners, abstractors, and searchers

- Total women workers: 53,382 (70.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $71,888
- Median earnings for women in this job: $44,591 (62.0% of men's earnings)

If you have a job in this occupation, you may spend your days digging through real estate records, taking a close look at titles, and summarizing legal and insurance documents. Texas employs the highest number of title examiners, abstractors, and searchers. However, Washington D.C. is the top-paying area for workers with this job.

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#62. Surgical technologists

- Total women workers: 55,938 (70.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $50,324
- Median earnings for women in this job: $45,235 (89.9% of men's earnings)

Hospitals rely on these workers to assist during surgeries, doing things like prepping operating rooms, sterilizing equipment, disinfecting patients, passing instruments to surgeons, and counting supplies. The occupation can trace its roots to the female nurses who worked at medical stations in the battlefields during World War I, reports AIMS Education.

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#61. Cashiers

- Total women workers: 721,216 (70.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $24,477
- Median earnings for women in this job: $21,664 (88.5% of men's earnings)

Cashiers handle transactions for goods and services from customers at stores. Part-time work and shifts at odd hours are often available in this occupation, making it an option for a woman trying to balance the needs of her family with her employment. However, advancements in technology are likely to reduce the demand for cashiers in the coming decade.

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#60. Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks

- Total women workers: 29,082 (70.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $61,737
- Median earnings for women in this job: $39,340 (63.7% of men's earnings)

Workers in this occupation are responsible for authorizing credit charges, investigating people's credit standing and businesses seeking loans, and processing applications. Texas, California, and Florida have the most jobs for credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks.

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#59. Bill and account collectors

- Total women workers: 89,262 (70.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $38,903
- Median earnings for women in this job: $35,738 (91.9% of men's earnings)

When a business has an overdue account, they look to bill and account collectors to recover payment. Their role has been shaken up by the pandemic, as several states have put a moratorium on certain types of debt collection. Despite the situation, lobbyists argue that the "ethnically diverse” and “women-majority workforce" of this occupation is one reason not to shut down debt collection, per The Intercept.

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#58. Medical and health services managers

- Total women workers: 461,249 (71.0% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $90,218
- Median earnings for women in this job: $67,316 (74.6% of men's earnings)

Folks in this occupation take care of healthcare providers' business end of things, such as recruiting staff, creating work schedules, monitoring budgets, and organizing records. You usually need a bachelor's degree or higher to land a job as a medical and health services manager. This occupation is estimated to grow a whopping 32% in the decade leading up to 2029—a much faster rate than the average.

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#57. Opticians, dispensing

- Total women workers: 33,514 (71.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $49,192
- Median earnings for women in this job: $36,793 (74.8% of men's earnings)

Dispensing opticians measure and fit glasses and contact lenses for clients with a prescription. They usually have between one and two years of higher education, according to Explore Health Careers. Most workers in this occupation work full-time (40 hours a week) in retail stores or medical offices.

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#56. Animal caretakers

- Total women workers: 103,041 (71.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $30,652
- Median earnings for women in this job: $25,783 (84.1% of men's earnings)

Animal caretakers feed, groom, and promote non-agricultural animals' well-being, like pets, birds, ornamental fish, and racehorses. The share of women in this occupation jumped 7.7 percentage points in the 16 years leading up to 2016, according to Veterinarian's Money Digest.

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#55. Massage therapists

- Total women workers: 48,137 (72.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $32,211
- Median earnings for women in this job: $30,421 (94.4% of men's earnings)

Massage therapists promote physical well-being and relaxation by touching and manipulating their clients' muscles and soft tissues. The field of massage therapy has certain biases against men, according to the Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals organization. While women are "considered the nurturers of the profession," male massage therapists often have trouble finding employment at spas or building a practice.

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#54. Human resources workers

- Total women workers: 556,437 (73.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $71,761
- Median earnings for women in this job: $59,431 (82.8% of men's earnings)

Nearly every industry has human resources managers who help plan and direct their employers' administrative functions. The occupation used to be split into two segments—people who focused on personnel and industry, and those who took care of labor relations (particularly for unions and the manufacturing industry), according to HR Dive. When unions and manufacturing employment began to decline, and the men who worked as labor relations leaders left the field, their clerical assistants (who were usually women) took on more work, which has since led to more women in the human resources industry.

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#53. Diagnostic medical sonographers

- Total women workers: 48,535 (73.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $78,316
- Median earnings for women in this job: $67,368 (86.0% of men's earnings)

Often referred to as a sonographer, this occupation requires workers to use imaging tools and sound waves to create images of parts of patients' bodies to help physicians diagnose conditions. Patients often prefer to have sonographers of the same gender, as they are often taking ultrasounds of their reproductive areas, per Florida National University.

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#52. Health care social workers

- Total women workers: 62,009 (73.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $43,154
- Median earnings for women in this job: $45,668 (105.8% of men's earnings)

Health care social workers help people with acute, chronic, or terminal diseases get the psychosocial support they need and get referrals to other services. The field has been women-led from its start. The first American woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize was Jane Addams, who is commonly referred to as "the mother of social work."

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#51. Other educational instruction and library workers

- Total women workers: 55,426 (74.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $65,750
- Median earnings for women in this job: $55,905 (85.0% of men's earnings)

Folks in these occupations take care of certain teaching needs and library responsibilities that aren't encompassed by more specific occupations listed by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. They usually work in educational institutions (ranging from elementary schools through universities). The highest level of employment for educational instruction and library workers can be found in California, Texas, and New York, while the top-paying place for these workers is Washington D.C.

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#50. Compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists

- Total women workers: 36,844 (74.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $72,347
- Median earnings for women in this job: $54,121 (74.8% of men's earnings)

Companies rely on workers in this occupation to determine their benefits programs and compensation schemes. Most employers want their compensation, benefits, and job analysis specialists to have a bachelor's degree in a field such as human resources, finance, or business administration. This field is expected to grow by 8% in the coming nine years.

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#49. Data entry keyers

- Total women workers: 159,841 (75.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $36,422
- Median earnings for women in this job: $34,421 (94.5% of men's earnings)

People in this profession use keyboards or other data entry devices to record information. Successful data entry keyers usually have strong reading comprehension skills, time management abilities, and active listening capabilities.

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#48. Educational, guidance, and career counselors and advisors

- Total women workers: 186,027 (76.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $50,568
- Median earnings for women in this job: $51,297 (101.4% of men's earnings)

Workers in this occupation provide educational and career guidance services to students. While women form most workers in entry- and mid-level jobs in this occupation, the same isn't true for more senior positions, reports the National Association for College Admission Counseling. Many women counselors have concerns about work-life balance that may be preventing them from moving ahead in their careers.

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#47. File clerks

- Total women workers: 93,463 (76.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $40,837
- Median earnings for women in this job: $36,406 (89.1% of men's earnings)

File clerks keep records (both hard copies and electronic versions) organized through certain systems, such as alphabetical order. Workers in this occupation will lean heavily on their computer skills, reading comprehension, and critical-thinking abilities to get the job done. They typically work normal office hours, and overtime usually isn't a requirement.

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#46. Loan interviewers and clerks

- Total women workers: 89,023 (76.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $50,269
- Median earnings for women in this job: $44,775 (89.1% of men's earnings)

Loan interviewers and clerks evaluate credit applicants through interviews, background checks, and calls to references. They also prepare certain loan documents and help complete transactions once loans are approved. The states that pay the highest, on average, for people in this occupation are Massachusetts, Connecticut, and California.

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#45. Mental health counselors

- Total women workers: 56,714 (76.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $50,632
- Median earnings for women in this job: $47,002 (92.8% of men's earnings)

Mental health counselors use psychotherapy techniques to help clients cope with emotional distress, per Verywell Mind. They work in mental health clinics, private offices, schools, hospitals, correctional facilities, community health centers, and government agencies. The government projects a 25% expansion in the employment of mental health counselors between 2019 and 2029.

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#44. Flight attendants

- Total women workers: 45,060 (77.0% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $60,200
- Median earnings for women in this job: $49,786 (82.7% of men's earnings)

Flight attendants might provide food and beverage service on a flight, but their primary responsibility is to keep passengers safe and respond to aviation emergencies. Female flight attendants have historically faced a lot of sexism on the job. Roughly 50 years ago, "stewardesses" could be fired if they got married or pregnant, per Business Insider.

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#43. Insurance claims and policy processing clerks

- Total women workers: 138,641 (77.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $48,844
- Median earnings for women in this job: $39,266 (80.4% of men's earnings)

Members of this occupation process new and renew insurance policies and claims forms. Most insurance claims and policy processing clerks work in the states of California, Texas, and Florida. Washington D.C., Connecticut, and Massachusetts are among the top-paying states for these workers.

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#42. Elementary and middle school teachers

- Total women workers: 1,994,308 (77.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $56,630
- Median earnings for women in this job: $51,277 (90.5% of men's earnings)

Teaching roles were once reserved for men, but became one of the few careers women could pursue when they started entering the workforce en masse in the 1960s, reports The New York Times. The newspaper speculates that many women may be drawn to the occupation because it allows them to work the same hours their kids are at school.

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#41. Eligibility interviewers, government programs

- Total women workers: 51,744 (78.1% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $48,188
- Median earnings for women in this job: $41,895 (86.9% of men's earnings)

These workers determine if a person is eligible for certain government assistance programs like social security and unemployment benefits. California, New York, and Texas employ the highest number of eligibility interviewers for government programs.

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#40. Meeting, convention, and event planners

- Total women workers: 70,920 (78.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $50,196
- Median earnings for women in this job: $51,389 (102.4% of men's earnings)

Meeting, convention, and event planners take care of the details of arranging professional gatherings and other functions. People within the field say that the occupation lends itself to organizational skills and good communication.

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#39. Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping

- Total women workers: 31,735 (78.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $45,924
- Median earnings for women in this job: $41,057 (89.4% of men's earnings)

This category of human resources assistants organizes personnel records for each employee, such as their address, attendance, earnings, and supervisory reports. They often work in general merchandise stores, management companies, employment services, and the government. They can usually find the highest-paying jobs in Washington D.C., Connecticut, and Massachusetts.

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#38. Social and human service assistants

- Total women workers: 133,378 (78.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $41,564
- Median earnings for women in this job: $39,143 (94.2% of men's earnings)

Members of this occupation offer client services throughout many fields, from psychology and social work to rehabilitation. Their tasks include developing treatment plans, helping clients find people to help them with daily activities, coordinating services, and helping clients take care of paperwork. Employers usually look for people with a high school diploma or an associate's degree to fill social and human service assistant roles.

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#37. Court, municipal, and license clerks

- Total women workers: 48,428 (79.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $48,413
- Median earnings for women in this job: $40,026 (82.7% of men's earnings)

These workers are employed by courts, municipalities, and government agencies to take care of a variety of duties. Court clerks may organize dockets of cases, while municipal and license clerks handle official correspondence, keep records, and issue permits, among other tasks. It should come as no surprise that most people in this occupation are employed at local and state governments.

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#36. Librarians and media collections specialists

- Total women workers: 95,813 (79.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $56,210
- Median earnings for women in this job: $52,136 (92.8% of men's earnings)

Libraries at schools and cities rely on these workers to maintain their books and other media collections. They may be responsible for acquiring new items, cataloging the collection, and circulating materials. Women began entering the field of librarianship in the 1880s and were often hired to "take over the less desirable aspects" of the job, according to American Libraries magazine. By 1930, women had 90% of librarian jobs.

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#35. Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop

- Total women workers: 36,938 (79.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $22,577
- Median earnings for women in this job: $20,862 (92.4% of men's earnings)

The hospitality industry relies on hosts to welcome guests and bring them to a table, ultimately working to ensure they have high-quality service. The job tends to be among the lower-paying roles at a restaurant but may serve as a stepping stone to more lucrative jobs.

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#34. Manicurists and pedicurists

- Total women workers: 125,220 (79.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $24,999
- Median earnings for women in this job: $22,421 (89.7% of men's earnings)

Nail and hair salons and spas employ manicurists and pedicurists to keep their clients' fingernails and toenails beautiful. This job may come with a high potential for exploitation. A 2015 investigation from The New York Times found that many nail salon workers earn less than minimum wage and endure "all manner of humiliation," including docked tips as punishment for mistakes, physical abuse, and constant video surveillance.

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#33. Travel agents

- Total women workers: 39,550 (79.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $45,610
- Median earnings for women in this job: $41,285 (90.5% of men's earnings)

Travel agents help clients make arrangements, like hotel reservations, flight bookings, and activities, for vacations and other trips. While this occupation is composed of many women, it still lacks racial diversity. Travel Pulse wrote in 2019 that Asian Americans only hold 7.9% of travel agent jobs, while just 6% of travel agents are Black.

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#32. Pharmacy technicians

- Total women workers: 200,173 (80.0% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $35,261
- Median earnings for women in this job: $31,978 (90.7% of men's earnings)

Workers in this occupation coordinate with pharmacists to dispense medication to patients or health professionals. A 2012 paper from the National Bureau of Economic Research called pharmacy jobs "the most egalitarian of all professions," as it has a relatively small gender wage gap compared with other occupations, and offers family-friendly work environments.

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#31. Interior designers

- Total women workers: 52,133 (80.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $56,776
- Median earnings for women in this job: $50,827 (89.5% of men's earnings)

Interior designers work to make indoor environments more beautiful and functional. They may choose lighting and furniture for a room, determine wall finishes, select plumbing fixtures, and help clients achieve certain design goals on a budget. According to Interior Design Media, the first professional interior designer in the U.S. was a woman named Elsie de Wolfe.

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#30. Interviewers, except eligibility and loan

- Total women workers: 62,326 (80.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $39,085
- Median earnings for women in this job: $33,767 (86.4% of men's earnings)

Interviewers conduct question-and-answer conversations via phone, mail, or in-person to gather information or help people complete applications and forms. Most folks in this occupation are employed by hospitals, while others work at colleges and universities. California is one of the highest-paying states for interviewers and the state with the highest employment levels for this profession.

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#29. Child, family, and school social workers

- Total women workers: 38,528 (81.1% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $45,181
- Median earnings for women in this job: $45,527 (100.8% of men's earnings)

These social workers specialize in maximizing the well-being of kids (including students) and their families. They may help arrange adoptions and foster care, address teen pregnancy and behavioral problems, and work to improve academic functioning.

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#28. Personal care aides

- Total women workers: 608,611 (81.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $29,478
- Median earnings for women in this job: $25,580 (86.8% of men's earnings)

People with certain disabilities, diseases, or cognitive conditions rely on personal care aides to help them with daily living activities, like housekeeping, appointment planning, bathing, dressing, and grocery shopping. This job often provides opportunities for older women to continue working past traditional retirement age.

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#27. Office clerks, general

- Total women workers: 772,055 (82.1% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $40,958
- Median earnings for women in this job: $35,628 (87.0% of men's earnings)

General office clerks take care of clerical tasks, like answering phones, filing documents, and typing information for their employers. Clerical work has long been dominated by women, reports JSTOR Daily. The gender imbalance can be traced to annual salary ceilings imposed by the federal government in the mid-19th century ($900 for women, up to $1,800 for men). Employers responded by hiring women for "structured, mechanized tasks."

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#26. Phlebotomists

- Total women workers: 73,167 (82.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $35,667
- Median earnings for women in this job: $32,237 (90.4% of men's earnings)

Workers in this occupation draw blood or certain medical tests, donations, and transfusions. Phlebotomists usually go through a training program before they enter the field, but some just get on-the-job training. Employment of this occupation is expected to expand 17% by 2029.

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#25. Occupational therapists

- Total women workers: 61,255 (82.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $75,076
- Median earnings for women in this job: $71,778 (95.6% of men's earnings)

Occupational therapists help people with disabilities, injuries, or diseases learn to perform everyday activities. The occupation is often seen as "women's work" because it has caretaking elements, according to a report from NPR's Morning Edition. About a decade ago, the profession put forth more efforts to recruit men to correct the gender imbalance.

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#24. Teaching assistants

- Total women workers: 435,270 (83.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $31,800
- Median earnings for women in this job: $23,491 (73.9% of men's earnings)

Licensed teachers sometimes have a teaching assistant who can give their students more attention and instruction. They may meet with small groups of students to reinforce lessons, enforce school rules, get equipment and materials ready for class, and take attendance. You usually need at least two years of college under your belt to be employable in this profession.

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#23. Word processors and typists

- Total women workers: 147,568 (83.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $40,826
- Median earnings for women in this job: $36,482 (89.4% of men's earnings)

These workers use computers and word processing technology to type documents, such as forms, letters, and reports. Most word processors and typists work for local governments and schools.

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#22. Maids and housekeeping cleaners

- Total women workers: 657,643 (84.1% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $28,212
- Median earnings for women in this job: $22,315 (79.1% of men's earnings)

Maids and housekeeping cleaners help keep hotel rooms, private homes, hospitals, and commercial establishments clean and tidy. This occupation has often been a social status indicator for women. The Atlantic writes, "For centuries, a woman's social status was clear-cut: Either she had a maid, or she was one."

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#21. Special education teachers

- Total women workers: 139,438 (84.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $52,821
- Median earnings for women in this job: $50,105 (94.9% of men's earnings)

Special education teachers provide lessons to students with certain issues, like learning disabilities or emotional challenges, according to The Balance. The perception that special education is a low status, low-paid job makes some men see it as "women's work," and thus stay away from the field, according to a 2005 report published in the journal Remedial and Special Education.

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#20. Tellers

- Total women workers: 161,554 (84.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $29,581
- Median earnings for women in this job: $28,399 (96.0% of men's earnings)

Banks depend on tellers to process routine transactions, like check deposits, cash withdrawals, and currency exchange. Most tellers were men prior to World War II, but banks began training women for the job when the men went to war.

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#19. Paralegals and legal assistants

- Total women workers: 274,813 (85.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $51,484
- Median earnings for women in this job: $51,135 (99.3% of men's earnings)

Paralegals and legal assistants help lawyers investigate facts, prepare documents, and conduct research for cases. A 1999 paper in The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science found that many paralegals shoulder emotional labor on top of their regular job duties. That, in turn, reinforces "the sex-segregated structure of law firms," keeping women in these roles.

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#18. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

- Total women workers: 725,937 (86.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $44,997
- Median earnings for women in this job: $40,539 (90.1% of men's earnings)

Folks in this profession are responsible for creating financial records and verifying fiscal documents for their employers. Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks usually have some postsecondary education, along with on-the-job training. Technological advancements are reducing demand for people in this occupation, which is expected to decline by 6% by 2029.

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#17. Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses

- Total women workers: 549,817 (86.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $42,937
- Median earnings for women in this job: $40,245 (93.7% of men's earnings)

These professionals practice basic nursing care, such as health monitoring, changing bandages, bathing patients, and keeping health records. Practical and vocational nurses must complete an approved program in order to get the license they need for employment. They usually work in residential care facilities, hospitals, and doctors' offices.

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#16. Registered nurses

- Total women workers: 2,116,796 (86.8% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $72,084
- Median earnings for women in this job: $66,871 (92.8% of men's earnings)

Registered nurses coordinate patient care and provide health services, such as assessing conditions, administering treatments and medication, performing diagnostic tests, and recording medical histories. They usually need a bachelor's or associate's degree in nursing or a nursing program diploma to obtain a license. The need for registered nurses is expected to climb 7% between 2019 and 2029.

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#15. Payroll and timekeeping clerks

- Total women workers: 114,214 (86.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $50,129
- Median earnings for women in this job: $44,749 (89.3% of men's earnings)

Payroll and timekeeping clerks keep data on employee salaries and hours worked. They may also prepare paychecks. The highest-paying jobs in this profession can be found in Washington D.C., Connecticut, and California. California and Texas employ the highest numbers of payroll and timekeeping clerks.

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#14. Billing and posting clerks

- Total women workers: 352,708 (87.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $41,528
- Median earnings for women in this job: $36,419 (87.7% of men's earnings)

Billing and posting clerks prepare invoices for their companies' services and goods. The vast majority of people in this occupation work at doctors' offices and hospitals, but some work for accounting and payroll firms.

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#13. Nursing assistants

- Total women workers: 804,227 (87.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $31,476
- Median earnings for women in this job: $27,478 (87.3% of men's earnings)

Nursing assistants offer basic care and help people take care of daily living tasks, like bathing, using the toilet, and eating meals. The occupation has both part-time and full-time jobs and may require workers to fill shifts during holidays, nights, and weekends. The employment of this occupation is expected to expand by 8% in the next decade.

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#12. Nurse practitioners

- Total women workers: 131,832 (88.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $110,015
- Median earnings for women in this job: $101,863 (92.6% of men's earnings)

Nurse practitioners work either independently or in collaboration with other medical providers to offer a range of health services, such as prescribing medications, diagnosing conditions, and ordering tests, according to the American Association of Nurse Practitioners. They must have a master's degree or doctorate and advanced clinical training that goes beyond that of a registered nurse.

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#11. Home health aides

- Total women workers: 219,285 (88.7% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $28,064
- Median earnings for women in this job: $25,492 (90.8% of men's earnings)

Home health aides offer routine health services, like dressing wounds and applying certain medications, to patients in their private homes or in care facilities. They may also help patients with basic activities, like dressing and bathing. New York, Texas, and Ohio employ the highest numbers of workers in this profession.

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#10. Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists

- Total women workers: 389,145 (89.2% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $36,156
- Median earnings for women in this job: $26,893 (74.4% of men's earnings)

People in this occupation offer a range of hair services, like cuts, coloring, and scalp treatments. They may also provide other beauty services, like hair removal and nail treatments. While women may hold the majority of roles in this field, the more elite positions are still a boy's club, according to a Forbes report from 2019.

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#9. Veterinary technologists and technicians

- Total women workers: 81,557 (89.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $31,229
- Median earnings for women in this job: $30,766 (98.5% of men's earnings)

A veterinary technologist or technician can conduct medical tests to help figure out why an animal might be sick or hurt. Technologists usually complete a four-year bachelor's degree before getting a job, while technicians typically have an associate's degree. This is a rapidly expanding job that's expected to grow by 16% in the next 10 years.

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#8. Receptionists and information clerks

- Total women workers: 621,377 (89.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $32,428
- Median earnings for women in this job: $30,003 (92.5% of men's earnings)

The duties of this occupation include answering questions and providing information to customers, visitors, and members of the public who are interested in their employers. This type of job has long been in the women's domain. In the 1950s, the most common job for women in the U.S. was secretary.

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#7. Medical records specialists

- Total women workers: 133,014 (91.0% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $40,961
- Median earnings for women in this job: $41,377 (101.0% of men's earnings)

According to Career Trend, medical records specialists help organize health information, check documents for accuracy, assign insurance reimbursement codes, and keep databases up-to-date. You may need an associate's degree or postsecondary certificate to land a job in this occupation.

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#6. Medical assistants

- Total women workers: 389,412 (91.6% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $36,928
- Median earnings for women in this job: $31,668 (85.8% of men's earnings)

Hospitals, doctors' offices, and other medical facilities rely on these workers to take care of certain administrative and clinical duties, like recording patients' histories and measuring vital signs. Employers look for workers who pay attention to detail and have strong analytical and interpersonal skills to fill medical assistant roles.

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#5. Dental assistants

- Total women workers: 168,642 (92.4% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $35,395
- Median earnings for women in this job: $33,828 (95.6% of men's earnings)

Dentist offices have assistants to help sterilize tools, prepare patients for procedures, keep records, and provide education on oral hygiene, among other tasks. Women's inherent abilities to build relationships and nurture patients make them uniquely suited to this occupation, according to the DentalPost.

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#4. Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants

- Total women workers: 162,976 (93.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $59,295
- Median earnings for women in this job: $60,122 (101.4% of men's earnings)

These administrative workers provide high-level support, such as conducting research, handling information requests, creating statistical reports, and arranging conference calls. Many people in this occupation work at colleges and universities, local governments, or in company management divisions. Executive secretaries and executive administrative assistants in New York tend to command the highest salaries.

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#3. Secretaries and administrative assistants, except legal, medical, and executive

- Total women workers: 1,681,262 (93.9% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $42,236
- Median earnings for women in this job: $37,442 (88.6% of men's earnings)

These workers take care of routine administrative functions, like drafting correspondence, managing schedules, organizing files, and providing information over the phone. Elementary and high schools employ most secretaries and administrative assistants, followed by governments and universities.

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#2. Childcare workers

- Total women workers: 506,349 (94.5% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $27,291
- Median earnings for women in this job: $22,342 (81.9% of men's earnings)

Childcare workers take care of kids at daycares and private homes. They make it possible for parents—especially moms—to have their own careers. Strong communication skills, an abundance of patients, and quick decision-making abilities can help someone succeed in this occupation.

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#1. Preschool and kindergarten teachers

- Total women workers: 337,311 (97.3% of all workers)
- Median earnings for men in this job: $31,008
- Median earnings for women in this job: $25,984 (83.8% of men's earnings)

Preschool and kindergarten teachers provide early childhood education, often teaching little ones about colors and shapes and exploring their interests. According to The New York Times, the low-pay of this job may keep some men away from pursuing it and continue to keep the occupation perceived as women's work.

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