How the racial landscape of the U.S. electorate has changed over the years

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October 20, 2020
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How the racial landscape of the U.S. electorate has changed over the years

“American” is not synonymous with “white.”

Statistics show that the country’s voting population is becoming more diverse. Asian Americans are the fastest-growing racial group in the U.S. electorate; roughly 2 million Indian Americans, the second-largest immigrant group in the United States, are eligible voters; and Hispanic voters increased by 39% between 2000 and 2018.

But when taking stock of those in power, elected officials don’t racially reflect the communities they represent. An analysis by The New York Times showed that 20% of the United States’ most powerful executives, elected officials, and gatekeepers identify as Black, Indigenous, or a person of color. Meanwhile, 40% of Americans identify as being a part of one of those communities.

Just looking at government officials, the New York Times study showed that of the 24 people at the forefront of the Trump administration, only three are Asian, Black, or Hispanic. Two of the current nine Supreme Court justices are Black or Hispanic. While the current territorial governor and mayor of Washington D.C. is Black, only three of the 50 state governors are Asian, Hispanic or Native American—there are no current Black state governors.

Yet, many cities across the country are becoming increasingly diverse. For example, Colorado Springs, Colorado, was 10.3% more diverse in 2018 than it was in 2010; Henderson, Nevada, 11.5%; and Detroit, 21%. As populations become more and more diverse, so do the electorates. And these communities are taking control of their vote to represent voices previously disenfranchised in past elections.

Stacker compiled 2000, 2010, and 2018 voter population statistics from Pew Research Center’s report on “The Changing Racial and Ethnic Composition of the U.S. Electorate” and the U.S. Census Bureau. The census data does not completely represent all communities living in the United States, however, due to lack of awareness and resources to serve diversifying demographics.

Released Sept. 23, statistics are listed for all of the states plus Washington D.C., and are broken down into four of the major single-race demographics. Eligible voters refer to U.S. citizens 18 and older, whether they have voted or not.

Pew research reported that more than 10 million immigrants have become eligible to vote between 2000 and 2018. California, New York, Florida, and Texas have the biggest share of naturalized citizen voters. Combined, those four states make up 56% of the national immigrant eligible voter population.

Included below are state-specific insights on how demographics have shaped a more-diverse electorate for this year’s presidential election.

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Alabama

- 2018 eligible voter population in Alabama: 3.71 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.55 million (69% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.52 million (71% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.40 million (73% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 80,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 45,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 28,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 978,000 (26% of voter population)
- 2010: 907,000 (26% of voter population)
- 2000: 786,000 (24% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 32,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 20,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 13,000 (0% of voter population)

People are moving out of Alabama, but the state’s population is not shrinking, as reported by Alabama.com. In fact, according to census data, more than 5,000 people immigrated to Jefferson County, the largest county in Alabama, from outside the United States between 2010-2018. While these numbers are not representative of eligible voters, it does signify an increasing pool of potential naturalized citizens. Pew Research analysis of the 2018 American Community Survey showed that Alabama has more than 62,000 eligible immigrant voters.

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Alaska

- 2018 eligible voter population in Alaska: 535,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 351,000 (66% of voter population)
- 2010: 354,000 (70% of voter population)
- 2000: 307,000 (73% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 33,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2010: 21,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 13,000 (3% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 15,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 14,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 14,000 (3% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 25,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 19,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 12,000 (3% of voter population)

Asian and Hispanic eligible voters have increased in Alaska. Also, 17% of the total adult population 18 and over, is Indigenous—the largest percentage of a state’s total population in the United States, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. But the number of registered voters—and voter turnout—within this demographic is low, due, in part, to the historic government practices making it harder for Indigenous people to vote. In 2008, the Alaskan government removed polling stations for Alaska Native villages, justifying the actions as “district realignment.” Today, the Native American Voting Rights Act of 2019 aims to make voting more accessible to Indigenous voters. This includes better access to polling locations and allowing tribal IDs for voting purposes.

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Arizona

- 2018 eligible voter population in Arizona: 5.04 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.19 million (63% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.97 million (69% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.55 million (75% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.19 million (24% of voter population)
- 2010: 824,000 (19% of voter population)
- 2000: 512,000 (15% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 227,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 166,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 98,000 (3% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 130,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 86,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 41,000 (1% of voter population)

Hispanics make up almost a third of Arizona’s voter population. Since the 2018 midterm elections, about 100,000 more Latino voters are now eligible to vote, according to Joseph Garcia, as originally reported by the Washington Post. Garcia, director of public policy for Chicanos Por La Causa, a nonprofit based in Phoenix, told The Post these first-time voters are typically Democratic. The changing demographics of Arizona’s electorate have turned it into a swing state.

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Arkansas

- 2018 eligible voter population in Arkansas: 2.22 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.72 million (78% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.70 million (80% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.61 million (82% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 83,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 51,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 27,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 333,000 (15% of voter population)
- 2010: 322,000 (15% of voter population)
- 2000: 277,000 (14% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 21,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 16,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 8,000 (0% of voter population)

Per the data, the Hispanic population in Arkansas has seen the most growth over the years. But this has yet to be reflected among elected officials in cities like Springdale, where all eight members of the county council are white. Springdale is one of the state’s most diverse cities, and with an increasingly diverse population comes the possibility of an increasingly diverse ticket. More specifically, the Arkansas Times reported 13 Latino candidates are running for office this November.

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California

- 2018 eligible voter population in California: 25.87 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 11.75 million (45% of voter population)
- 2010: 11.95 million (52% of voter population)
- 2000: 12.09 million (60% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 7.89 million (30% of voter population)
- 2010: 5.90 million (26% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.87 million (19% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.68 million (6% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.60 million (7% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.48 million (7% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.60 million (14% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.82 million (12% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.83 million (9% of voter population)

California has the largest number of immigrant voters of any other state, with 21% of its 25.9 million voters born outside the country, according to Pew Research. Asian and Hispanic voter populations have also seen significant increases in the past 18 years. But the same cannot be said for the Black community. In fact, an estimated 75,000 Black Californians migrated out of the state in 2018, according to CalMatters.

In what local reporters are calling a “Black Exodus,” high eviction rates, homeownership costs, and economic opportunity are driving Black people to leave for states like Texas, Nevada, and Georgia. This in turn directly impacts the number of Black people who show up to the polls.

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Colorado

- 2018 eligible voter population in Colorado: 4.15 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.11 million (75% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.78 million (78% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.43 million (81% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 659,000 (16% of voter population)
- 2010: 484,000 (14% of voter population)
- 2000: 342,000 (11% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 161,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 125,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 106,000 (4% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 99,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 68,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 42,000 (1% of voter population)

While the Black population in Colorado has remained consistent throughout the years, people in the state are reckoning with a renewed interest in representation and social justice. In fact, Proposition 113—a motion that puts to the vote whether Colorado should support electing the president by the national popular vote instead of the electoral vote—will be on the November ballot. Experts say, according to the Colorado Sun, that the Electoral College system is a disadvantage to voters of color, particularly because of its roots in slavery. Colorado state Sen. Mike Foote told the Colorado Sun that regardless of the numbers, “Under a national popular vote, presidential candidates have to pay attention to all communities across the country.”

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Connecticut

- 2018 eligible voter population in Connecticut: 2.61 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.92 million (73% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.98 million (78% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.99 million (83% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 322,000 (12% of voter population)
- 2010: 239,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2000: 161,000 (7% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 248,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2010: 218,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2000: 184,000 (8% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 84,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 54,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 33,000 (1% of voter population)

Racial voter suppression is a primary concern in Connecticut due to the restrictive voting laws that disproportionately impact Black and brown people. Specifically, Connecticut is one of a few states that doesn’t allow no-excuse absentee ballots, and prohibits early voting, which leads to long voting lines—a barrier to entry for many.

Due to this year’s particularly polarizing race, Connecticut’s attorney general, deputy chief state’s attorney, and secretary of state have condemned voter intimidation, as originally reported by the Hartford Courant. But turnout is hopeful, because despite the pandemic, Connecticut has seen a 79% increase in new voter registration during the three-month period this year compared to 2016.

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Delaware

- 2018 eligible voter population in Delaware: 721,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 496,000 (69% of voter population)
- 2010: 476,000 (72% of voter population)
- 2000: 439,000 (78% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 39,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 29,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 15,000 (3% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 155,000 (21% of voter population)
- 2010: 132,000 (20% of voter population)
- 2000: 98,000 (17% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 16,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 12,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 7,000 (1% of voter population)

Nationally, the percentage of Black voters has grown slightly. But Delaware is one of three states in the Southeast that had the largest increase in the percentage of Black voters out of any racial and ethnic group. The other two states are Georgia, with the largest increase, and Mississippi.

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Florida

- 2018 eligible voter population in Florida: 15.34 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 9.33 million (61% of voter population)
- 2010: 8.80 million (67% of voter population)
- 2000: 8.21 million (74% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.14 million (20% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.09 million (16% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.25 million (11% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.22 million (14% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.80 million (14% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.34 million (12% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 345,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 232,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 121,000 (1% of voter population)

According to Pew Research, Florida has seen the third-largest decline in white non-HIspanic voters. Meanwhile, the state also saw one of the largest increases in Hispanic voters, growing by nine percentage points. Florida is a notorious battleground state, so targeting specific racial and ethnic groups, like the Latino vote, is expected to be key in securing the state’s outcome. But, after interviewing 12 Latino voters, the Tampa Bay Times reported that this demographic is not aligned on every issue due to generational gaps. The community is not a monolith.

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Georgia

- 2018 eligible voter population in Georgia: 7.49 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4.36 million (58% of voter population)
- 2010: 4.19 million (63% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.88 million (68% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 377,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 220,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 114,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.40 million (32% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.05 million (31% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.55 million (27% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 205,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 134,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 62,000 (1% of voter population)

Black voters in Georgia saw the biggest percentage increase out of any other racial and ethnic group compared to any other state. During the first week of early voting in the 2020 presidential election, thousands of Black voters showed up at the polls, despite long lines and health risks, according to AP News. While waiting in line is not uncommon, Georgia had seen allegations of voter suppression during the state’s gubernatorial election in 2018. The history, paired with this year’s impassioned presidential race, has intensified concerns of disenfranchisement.

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Hawaii

- 2018 eligible voter population in Hawaii: 1.02 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 259,000 (25% of voter population)
- 2010: 260,000 (27% of voter population)
- 2000: 224,000 (27% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 89,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2010: 71,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2000: 49,000 (6% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 21,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 16,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 15,000 (2% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 384,000 (38% of voter population)
- 2010: 381,000 (39% of voter population)
- 2000: 355,000 (42% of voter population)

Hawaii has the highest percentage of Asian eligible voters. The state also has the lowest percentage of white voters compared to any other state, and is one of three states in which the white eligible voter population is not the majority. The robust Asian population can be explained by the state’s history with immigrants from China, Japan, and the Philippines. But in terms of growth, the share of Asian voters actually decreased. The fastest-growing demographic in the state is the Latino community, which increased more than 80% since 2000, according to the U.S. Census Bureau.

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Idaho

- 2018 eligible voter population in Idaho: 1.25 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.09 million (87% of voter population)
- 2010: 982,000 (90% of voter population)
- 2000: 825,000 (93% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 101,000 (8% of voter population)
- 2010: 69,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2000: 35,000 (4% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 7,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 4,000 (0% of voter population)
- 2000: 3,000 (0% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 17,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 9,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 5,000 (1% of voter population)

Idaho is one of the fastest-growing states in the country. In the past decade, Idaho has welcomed more than 200,000 people according to census data. But the voting population remains predominantly white and conservative. It’s unclear how the gradual influx of people is impacting the voting habits of the state at large.

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Illinois

- 2018 eligible voter population in Illinois: 9.06 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 6.16 million (68% of voter population)
- 2010: 6.33 million (72% of voter population)
- 2000: 6.32 million (75% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.05 million (12% of voter population)
- 2010: 773,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2000: 538,000 (6% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.32 million (15% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.30 million (15% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.23 million (15% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 380,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 301,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 184,000 (2% of voter population)

WBEZ reported that Asians are the fastest-growing demographic in Illinois despite overall population decline. And while Pew Research indicated slow or stagnant growth of the eligible voter populations, from a more holistic view the Asian demographic has grown by 24% since 2010. The state also has the sixth-largest number of eligible immigrant voters. The Chicago Tribune reported in February that a mistake in automatic voter registration allowed hundreds of non-U.S. citizens living in Illinois to register to vote. While uncommon, the incident sparked frustration around the state’s systematic failure to support and protect its diverse communities.

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Indiana

- 2018 eligible voter population in Indiana: 4.93 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4.14 million (84% of voter population)
- 2010: 4.08 million (87% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.91 million (89% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 204,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 141,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 89,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 442,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2010: 398,000 (8% of voter population)
- 2000: 342,000 (8% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 65,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 40,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 21,000 (0% of voter population)

Political representation in Indiana has not been the most diverse even though Asian, Black, and Hispanic demographics have grown over the years. In fact, Indiana has never seen a person of color as governor.

This lack of representation is partly attributed to Unigov, a decision instituted by former Gov. Richard Lugar who combined Marion County and Indianapolis under a single government. Expanding this government from the city outward to predominantly white suburban areas is thought to have suppressed Black voters and made it more difficult for their voice to be heard, according to the Indy Star. With the expansion came a 9% decrease in the area’s Black population, allowing white voters to take control of the polls. The implications of Unigov stand to this day.

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Iowa

- 2018 eligible voter population in Iowa: 2.33 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.11 million (91% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.10 million (93% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.05 million (96% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 80,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 52,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 28,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 59,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 55,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 37,000 (2% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 37,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 19,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 12,000 (1% of voter population)

As demographics change in Iowa, the state maintains one with the largest white eligible voter populations in the country. And historic practices further the divide among who’s represented at the polls. The Iowa Caucus has been highly contested as a practice that disenfranchises voters of color. Because the state’s population is more than 90% white, the results of the caucus don’t accurately reflect the nation’s increasingly diverse voter population. And as being the first in the nation to vote, Iowa holds the power to project whoever wins into the national spotlight, and some say it shouldn’t.

The Hispanic population is the state’s fastest-growing demographic. But of the estimated 50,000 registered Hispanic voters, only 3,000 actually turned up to vote during Iowa’s 2016 presidential caucuses, according to Reuters.

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Kansas

- 2018 eligible voter population in Kansas: 2.10 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.72 million (82% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.72 million (85% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.67 million (88% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 150,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2010: 112,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2000: 69,000 (4% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 117,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2010: 107,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2000: 100,000 (5% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 42,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 29,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 18,000 (1% of voter population)

Kansas is yet another state that is seeing slow growth of non-white voter populations. But the historically red state is starting to see progress in who it elects to office. In 2018, Kansas elected the nation’s first openly gay, Indigenous woman to Congress. Still, the Black population has seen little to no growth in the past 18 years.

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Kentucky

- 2018 eligible voter population in Kentucky: 3.37 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.97 million (88% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.91 million (90% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.74 million (91% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 56,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 41,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 22,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 258,000 (8% of voter population)
- 2010: 239,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2000: 203,000 (7% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 29,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 20,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 10,000 (0% of voter population)

According to Pew Research, more than half of Kentucky’s Black population lives in the metropolitan areas that include Jefferson and Fayette counties. Jefferson County specifically is home to the state’s largest Black population, with 22.4% of its residents identifying as Black or African American alone, but only had one polling location in this year’s primary. This is compared to its usual 270 locations. Black residents started to call for more polling locations ahead of the presidential election, because the limited number suppresses the Black vote. The state has consistently voted Republican in recent years.

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Louisiana

- 2018 eligible voter population in Louisiana: 3.46 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.15 million (62% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.14 million (64% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.12 million (66% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 107,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 86,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 59,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.10 million (32% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.02 million (31% of voter population)
- 2000: 953,000 (30% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 37,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 33,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 24,000 (1% of voter population)

Black people make up the second-biggest share of the population in Louisiana. In fact, New Orleans has a majority Black population. But Black voters only make up about one third of the voter population. Despite expanding mail-in voting access due to the pandemic, the Center for Public Integrity (CPI) contextualized barriers to vote that still exist. Felony disenfranchisement, a law that prevents people convicted of a felony from voting, disproportionately affects Black people, who are incarcerated at much higher rates than any other demographic. Today, parolees who have been out of prison for at least five years are eligible to vote, but have to go through an arguably inaccessible process. Caren Short, senior staff attorney at the Southern Poverty Law Center, told the CPI that informing people of the process has been a “challenge.”

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Maine

- 2018 eligible voter population in Maine: 1.07 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.02 million (95% of voter population)
- 2010: 999,000 (96% of voter population)
- 2000: 934,000 (97% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 16,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 10,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 6,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 9,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 6,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 3,000 (0% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 11,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 8,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 4,000 (0% of voter population)

In addition to Iowa, Maine is another state with a large white eligible voter population of 95%. The growth of non-white demographics is lacking to nonexistent. Historians attribute the low Black population to geography. Because of its northeastern location and economic distance from plantation farming predominant in the South, there was never a sizable Black population in the state leading up to and even after the Civil War. The Wabanaki Nation, however, has been in Maine for years. But there is only one Indigenous legislator in the state.

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Maryland

- 2018 eligible voter population in Maryland: 4.33 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.44 million (57% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.49 million (62% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.49 million (67% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 253,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2010: 150,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 81,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.29 million (30% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.17 million (29% of voter population)
- 2000: 980,000 (26% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 221,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 153,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 94,000 (3% of voter population)

Almost 50% of the population of Maryland is Black, Indigenous, and other people of color. The same is true for the state’s voter population. Among those people of color, Black voters take up the biggest share. Between 1990 and 2010, the Black population in Maryland has grown about 43%, according to the U.S. Census data.

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Massachusetts

- 2018 eligible voter population in Massachusetts: 5.04 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.92 million (78% of voter population)
- 2010: 3.89 million (83% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.93 million (88% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 452,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2010: 299,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2000: 190,000 (4% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 307,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2010: 235,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2000: 178,000 (4% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 240,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 165,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 91,000 (2% of voter population)

While the Hispanic eligible voter population has grown the most in Massachusetts, voter turnout within the same demographic is lacking, especially in major cities like Boston. The Huntington News reported that for the past 24 years, the share of Hispanic and Latino Americans who have voted has been smaller than the portion who have not voted. Amplify Latinx is an example of an organization trying to amplify Latinx turnout. The group aims to elect 20 Latinx leaders to Massachusetts public office.

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Michigan

- 2018 eligible voter population in Michigan: 7.55 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 5.95 million (79% of voter population)
- 2010: 5.86 million (80% of voter population)
- 2000: 5.82 million (82% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 261,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 196,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 154,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.01 million (13% of voter population)
- 2010: 986,000 (14% of voter population)
- 2000: 934,000 (13% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 155,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 101,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 63,000 (1% of voter population)

Both Black and Hispanic voter populations have gone up and down in the past couple decades in Michigan. But cities like Detroit are experiencing substantial growth in diversity. According to a report produced by U.S. News & World Report, the city increased its diversity by 21%, the largest gain of any city in the United States. In fact, the demographic changes in the city have been used to explain how Hillary Clinton lost the state in 2016. During the last presidential election, Wayne County had one of the largest drops in Democratic votes; this county is also home to the state’s largest Black population. In 2008, Clinton earned 76,000 fewer votes than President Barack Obama in that same county.

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Minnesota

- 2018 eligible voter population in Minnesota: 4.11 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.54 million (86% of voter population)
- 2010: 3.44 million (90% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.26 million (93% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 127,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 81,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 49,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 193,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 128,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 85,000 (2% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 142,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 91,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 43,000 (1% of voter population)

The Star Tribune reported the Black voter turnout proved to be critical in deciding the state’s vote in 2016’s presidential election, like a few other Midwestern states. The 2016 election was decided by a margin of less than 2%. In response to the murder of George Floyd, and many others at the hands of police, more than half of Minnesota voters believe it’s due to a systemically-flawed justice system. This small, but growing, voter demographic could prove to be pivotal in deciding which 2020 presidential candidate will secure the state.

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Mississippi

- 2018 eligible voter population in Mississippi: 2.24 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.33 million (59% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.34 million (62% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.32 million (65% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 36,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 27,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 17,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 834,000 (37% of voter population)
- 2010: 772,000 (35% of voter population)
- 2000: 683,000 (33% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 14,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 14,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 7,000 (0% of voter population)

Black voters saw a four percentage point increase in Mississippi from 2000 to 2018. The state, in addition to Georgia and Delaware, saw the largest percentage point increase in Black voters out of any other racial and ethnic groups, according to Pew Research. This year’s senate race in Mississippi will depend on high Black voter turnout, Mississippi.com reported. Former Secretary of Agriculture Mike Espy’s chance to defeat incumbent Republican Sen. Cindy Hyde-Smith reportedly depends on the Black vote.

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Missouri

- 2018 eligible voter population in Missouri: 4.64 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.83 million (83% of voter population)
- 2010: 3.77 million (85% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.54 million (86% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 125,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 87,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 54,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 511,000 (11% of voter population)
- 2010: 484,000 (11% of voter population)
- 2000: 413,000 (10% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 64,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 42,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 27,000 (1% of voter population)

Black voters make up the largest share of non-white voters in Missouri. But the state remains predominantly white in terms of overall population and voter population. Now, voter turnout is allegedly being suppressed in the state. Five voting rights organizations—The Organization for Black Struggle, Missouri Faith Voices, the St. Louis and Greater Kansas City chapters of the A. Philip Randolph Institute, and the St. Louis section of the National Council of Jewish Women, are suing the Secretary of State for the state’s remote voting rules. The lawsuit claims that new processes and confusing rules disenfranchise voters of color, an already-underrepresented demographic in the state.

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Montana

- 2018 eligible voter population in Montana: 828,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 729,000 (88% of voter population)
- 2010: 687,000 (90% of voter population)
- 2000: 607,000 (92% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 29,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 17,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 9,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4,000 (0% of voter population)
- 2010: 2,000 (0% of voter population)
- 2000: 2,000 (0% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 3,000 (0% of voter population)
- 2000: 2,000 (0% of voter population)

Most notably, Montana has seen no growth in the Black voter population in the past 18 years according to census data. The state has remained red throughout the years. Roughly 88% of the state’s overall population is white, and the second-largest demographic to follow is American Indian or Alaskan Native, with a share of 6.7%. Political representation is growing to be more representative of the demographic. Montana actually holds the fifth-largest population of voting-age Natives. The state now has 11 Native legislators.

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Nebraska

- 2018 eligible voter population in Nebraska: 1.38 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.18 million (85% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.17 million (89% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.12 million (92% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 90,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2010: 63,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2000: 32,000 (3% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 57,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 47,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 42,000 (3% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 19,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 13,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 8,000 (1% of voter population)

Nebraska doesn’t have the most robust non-white population, let alone voter population. But key issues deeply intertwined with the Black community are up for a vote in this year’s election nonetheless. Just like Utah, Nebraska is trying to reconcile its racist past. The Nebraska Constitution, to this day, allows slavery as punishment for a crime. Though rarely used, the provision is problematic. State Sen. Justin Wayne proposed to remove that language from the state’s constitution in January 2019, and garnered unanimous votes from state legislators to amend the language.

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Nevada

- 2018 eligible voter population in Nevada: 2.07 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.20 million (58% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.17 million (66% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.01 million (76% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 407,000 (20% of voter population)
- 2010: 268,000 (15% of voter population)
- 2000: 127,000 (10% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 194,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2010: 148,000 (8% of voter population)
- 2000: 87,000 (7% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 161,000 (8% of voter population)
- 2010: 115,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2000: 45,000 (3% of voter population)

Overall, the non-white population in Nevada has seen significant growth in the past 18 years. An estimated 70% of newly-eligible voters are young people of color, per the Atlantic. Most notably, the Hispanic voter population has doubled, and the state houses the sixth-largest Hispanic eligible voter population compared to any other state.

Carlos Odio, co-founder of Equis Research and a Latino vote data researcher, told the Nevada Current that, “The Latino vote is critical to a Biden win in Nevada in nearly all scenarios we examined.” Canvassing and bilingual advertising are both part of targeted campaign efforts to appeal to these growing communities.

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New Hampshire

- 2018 eligible voter population in New Hampshire: 1.07 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 993,000 (93% of voter population)
- 2010: 951,000 (95% of voter population)
- 2000: 872,000 (97% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 31,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 17,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 11,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 11,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 7,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 5,000 (1% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 17,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 11,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 6,000 (1% of voter population)

New Hampshire has the third-largest white eligible voter population in the country, and its lack of diversity is not the only notable thing about its voting practices. Per a report produced by the University of New Hampshire, two-thirds of the residents over 25 were born outside the state. That means there is ultimately higher voter turnover, as the population is generally more mobile. The university report breaks down young, established, and migrant voters, and one thing they all have in common is moderate views.

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New Jersey

- 2018 eligible voter population in New Jersey: 6.20 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.87 million (62% of voter population)
- 2010: 4.00 million (68% of voter population)
- 2000: 4.17 million (74% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 948,000 (15% of voter population)
- 2010: 677,000 (11% of voter population)
- 2000: 495,000 (9% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 820,000 (13% of voter population)
- 2010: 789,000 (13% of voter population)
- 2000: 712,000 (13% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 459,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2010: 355,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2000: 186,000 (3% of voter population)

New Jersey has seen significant growth in the Asian demographic and that is also reflected in the share of eligible voters. In fact, New Jersey has the fourth-largest share of Asian American eligible voters compared to any other state. Many of those Asian Americans are naturalized citizens. The state has the second-largest immigrant eligible voter population, preceded only by California. According to Asian and Pacific Islander American Vote, Asian voters in New Jersey grew by 23% between the years of 2012 and 2018. Yet, there are only two Indian legislators in the entire state, according to NJ.com.

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New Mexico

- 2018 eligible voter population in New Mexico: 1.51 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 653,000 (43% of voter population)
- 2010: 691,000 (48% of voter population)
- 2000: 643,000 (52% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 645,000 (43% of voter population)
- 2010: 550,000 (39% of voter population)
- 2000: 437,000 (36% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 34,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 29,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 21,000 (2% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 17,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 12,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 9,000 (1% of voter population)

New Mexico is one of three states in which the share of white voters is not the majority. It’s also considered one of the battleground states, which means the demographics and voter turnout actually play a critical role in securing a red or blue vote. Hispanic voter turnout nearly doubled between 2014 and 2018 in New Mexico and a handful of other states, according to CBS News. However, the increased turnout is not without hardship, because language barriers and propaganda both contribute to the misinformation given to the Hispanic voters in New Mexico.

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New York

- 2018 eligible voter population in New York: 13.77 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 8.54 million (62% of voter population)
- 2010: 8.77 million (67% of voter population)
- 2000: 8.81 million (71% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.03 million (15% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.65 million (13% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.30 million (10% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.97 million (14% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.82 million (14% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.70 million (14% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 920,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2010: 691,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2000: 413,000 (3% of voter population)

Primarily because of the bustling hub that is New York City, the state has the second-largest number of immigrant eligible voters—roughly 2.5 million people. Most of these voters hail from the Dominican Republic. But New York City is not without racial tensions, even as demographics change. On Oct. 16, New York State courts released a report detailing racist statements made by legislators and court employees. And, following the murder of George Floyd, thousands of protesters took to the streets, eventually calling on local government to defund the New York Police Department—and it worked. Diverse communities within the city were able to prompt NYC officials to make deep cuts in the New York Police Department’s portion of the city’s $88.1 billion budget, as reported by NBC.

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North Carolina

- 2018 eligible voter population in North Carolina: 7.63 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 5.27 million (69% of voter population)
- 2010: 4.92 million (72% of voter population)
- 2000: 4.39 million (75% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 338,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 196,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 92,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.66 million (22% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.46 million (21% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.19 million (20% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 141,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 91,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 41,000 (1% of voter population)

North Carolina is another battleground state that voted Republican in 2016, but previously voted Democratic. There are identifiable trends within the demographics. According to Carolina Demography’s analysis of North Carolina State Board of Elections data, Black voters are more likely to register as Democrats, while Asian and Hispanic voters are more likely to remain unaffiliated. But regardless of party affiliation in North Carolina, if voters of color cast a ballot, it could possibly be thrown out. Evidence of this is already occurring with mail-in ballots. Just this week, CNN reported 40% of the ballots mailed by Black voters are labeled, for various reasons, as “pending” or “pending cure.”

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North Dakota

- 2018 eligible voter population in North Dakota: 569,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 499,000 (88% of voter population)
- 2010: 476,000 (92% of voter population)
- 2000: 448,000 (94% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 17,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 7,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 4,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 12,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 3,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 2,000 (0% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 3,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 2,000 (0% of voter population)

North Dakota has three Native American legislators and 31,000 eligible American Indian or Alaskan Native voters. And Asian, Hispanic, and Black voter populations have all increased in the state. What’s notable about this state’s electorate is the shift in ideology. Initially a consistently-Democratic state, North Dakota now votes Republican. Forum News Service and the North Dakota Newspaper Association Education Foundation attribute this shift to five historical events: Depression years, the New Deal, the Cold War, new Air Force bases, and the discovery of the state’s oil reserves—and also because the state is much whiter than the country at large.

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Ohio

- 2018 eligible voter population in Ohio: 8.87 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 7.29 million (82% of voter population)
- 2010: 7.27 million (84% of voter population)
- 2000: 7.19 million (86% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 241,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 166,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 115,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.04 million (12% of voter population)
- 2010: 980,000 (11% of voter population)
- 2000: 863,000 (10% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 124,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 85,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 52,000 (1% of voter population)

Ohio’s Asian voter population has remained relatively the same in 18 years. Yet, the overall population of this demographic has doubled since 2000. While the state remains a battleground and is highly sought after by the presidential candidates, U.S News & World Report attributes Donald Trump’s appeal to the demographics of the state. Specifically, Ohio is nearly 79% white and has a non-white voting population of less than 20%.

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Oklahoma

- 2018 eligible voter population in Oklahoma: 2.85 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.04 million (72% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.05 million (76% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.97 million (79% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 177,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2010: 111,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 66,000 (3% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 205,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2010: 188,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2000: 168,000 (7% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 42,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 29,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 19,000 (1% of voter population)

Oklahoma has the second-largest Indigienous population compared to any other state, with American Indians and Alaskan Natives making up 12% of the state’s total population. And, 369,000 of them are eligible voters, according to 2018 Census data. The Black eligible voter population has not changed, while the percentage of Hispanic voters has doubled in the past 18 years. Ideologically, the state remains predominantly Republican.

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Oregon

- 2018 eligible voter population in Oregon: 3.11 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.57 million (83% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.40 million (87% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.18 million (90% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 238,000 (8% of voter population)
- 2010: 146,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2000: 79,000 (3% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 53,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 44,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 35,000 (1% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 113,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 74,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 44,000 (2% of voter population)

The share of diverse voters in Oregon is small, but growing. What’s notable about the state is its voting practices. In many states across the country, the lack of accessible mail-in voting is seen as a form of voter suppression. For those who are unable to take off from work, wait in long lines, or just don’t want to risk their health to vote in person this year, the lack of options can be frustrating and lead to lower turnout. But Oregon has been voting by mail exclusively since 1998. Still, organizations like the League of Minority Voters, originally founded in this state in 2007, advocate for minority voters’ rights as the state’s electorate continues to become more diverse.

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Pennsylvania

- 2018 eligible voter population in Pennsylvania: 9.79 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 7.89 million (81% of voter population)
- 2010: 8.04 million (84% of voter population)
- 2000: 7.97 million (87% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 521,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 353,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 208,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 980,000 (10% of voter population)
- 2010: 930,000 (10% of voter population)
- 2000: 801,000 (9% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 233,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 167,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 85,000 (1% of voter population)

Pennsylvania’s vote in the Electoral College is expected to be critical in determining the results of the 2020 presidential elections, according to FiveThirtyEight. It’s because of this that Democrats have a renewed interest in appealing to Black voters in the state. Black voters make up 10% of the state’s 2018 voter population, with heavier concentrations of Black voters in major counties. For example, Philadelphia County, the largest county in the state, is 44% Black.

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Rhode Island

- 2018 eligible voter population in Rhode Island: 801,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 627,000 (78% of voter population)
- 2010: 650,000 (85% of voter population)
- 2000: 665,000 (89% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 90,000 (11% of voter population)
- 2010: 54,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2000: 31,000 (4% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 40,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 34,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 24,000 (3% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 20,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 12,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 10,000 (1% of voter population)

Rhode Island’s biggest non-white voter population is the Hispanic demographic. The U.S. census in 1960 didn’t count the Hispanic population, only listing categories “white” and “other.” But in 1970, the census reported 5,596 Hispanics in the state, some of whom immigrated from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Guatemala. Since then, the Hispanic population has continued to grow. In 2012, the state had its first Latino mayor in Central Falls, Rhode Island.

In June 2020, the state’s only Black senator introduced a bill to remove the word “plantation” from Rhode Island’s official name because of its historic ties to slavery. The state’s current official name is “The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.” The change comes after nationwide civil unrest following the murder of George Floyd that prompted institutions to reconcile problematic histories with increasingly progressive and diverse demographics.

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South Carolina

- 2018 eligible voter population in South Carolina: 3.85 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.61 million (68% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.35 million (69% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.05 million (70% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 118,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 66,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 33,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.02 million (26% of voter population)
- 2010: 936,000 (27% of voter population)
- 2000: 812,000 (28% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 42,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 25,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 16,000 (1% of voter population)

South Carolina’s population is not diversifying as quickly as other parts of the United States. According to Pew Research, the Asian voter population stayed relatively the same from 2000 to 2018. Despite the fact that the state’s population has doubled since the 1970s, the racial breakdown of South Carolina’s population has changed the least compared to all the other states, according to the Post and Courier.

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South Dakota

- 2018 eligible voter population in South Dakota: 654,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 562,000 (86% of voter population)
- 2010: 537,000 (89% of voter population)
- 2000: 496,000 (91% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 18,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 9,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 4,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 10,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 4,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 3,000 (0% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 2,000 (0% of voter population)
- 2000: 2,000 (0% of voter population)

Unlike Wyoming, South Dakota’s state legislature has not approved the use of tribal IDs as an acceptable form of identification for voter registration, despite having the third largest Native American population in the country, as reported by the Fulcrum. The goal, as stated before, is to increase voter engagement with Indigenous populations, but restricting what IDs and addresses are permissible is a significant barrier. The state’s electorate is not representative of the Indigenous populations, and only beginning to see small spikes in the percentage of non-white voters.

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Tennessee

- 2018 eligible voter population in Tennessee: 5.07 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.98 million (78% of voter population)
- 2010: 3.77 million (80% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.47 million (83% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 125,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 76,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2000: 41,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 826,000 (16% of voter population)
- 2010: 746,000 (16% of voter population)
- 2000: 625,000 (15% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 56,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 40,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 21,000 (1% of voter population)

Historic practices like felony disenfranchisement continue to disproportionately affect Black people in Tennessee. Today, more than 20% of Tennessee’s Black adult population can’t vote because of felony convictions, according to The Sentencing Project. The state has seen an increase of 201,000 Black voters from 2000 to 2018, but the overall percentage has only increased 1%.

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Texas

- 2018 eligible voter population in Texas: 18.51 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 9.40 million (51% of voter population)
- 2010: 8.95 million (56% of voter population)
- 2000: 8.31 million (62% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 5.63 million (30% of voter population)
- 2010: 4.18 million (26% of voter population)
- 2000: 2.97 million (22% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 2.43 million (13% of voter population)
- 2010: 2.02 million (13% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.59 million (12% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 698,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 458,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 226,000 (2% of voter population)

Asian, Hispanic, and Black voter populations have all experienced growth. Texas is #3 in terms of Asian American eligible voters in the country, and the Asian demographic is also the state’s fastest-growing. On top of that, the state has about 1.8 million immigrant eligible voters. But despite the seemingly-diverse demographics, the state remains primarily Republican. Some think this year’s presidential election offers the state’s best chance of turning blue. Regardless of its outcome, Texas Monthly reported that due to an increasingly diverse population, culture-based voter issues like racial justice and gun control, and an already-maximized rural voting turnout, the GOP is losing its stronghold in the state.

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Utah

- 2018 eligible voter population in Utah: 2.09 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.76 million (84% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.55 million (88% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.29 million (91% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 188,000 (9% of voter population)
- 2010: 123,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2000: 69,000 (5% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 21,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 13,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 9,000 (1% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 39,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 25,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 16,000 (1% of voter population)

In the past 18 years, the number of Black voters has increased, but so has the total eligible voter population in the state. That’s why data from Pew Research shows the percentage of the Black voter population in Utah has stayed the same. But Black voters still have a voice. As reported by Fox13, community leaders called on state legislators to remove any mention of the word “slavery” from the state’s consitution. Citizens will vote on the amendment in November.

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Vermont

- 2018 eligible voter population in Vermont: 503,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 473,000 (94% of voter population)
- 2010: 468,000 (96% of voter population)
- 2000: 438,000 (97% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 8,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 6,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 3,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 494,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 435,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 194,000 (0% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 7,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 3,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 2,000 (0% of voter population)

Vermont has the second-highest white eligible voter population in the country, but unlike the other states with this large demographic—New Hampshire and Maine—Vermont has voted consistently Democratic in recent years. The state has also experienced very slow overall population growth, which can, in part, explain the low non-white voter turnout.

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Virginia

- 2018 eligible voter population in Virginia: 6.21 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4.18 million (67% of voter population)
- 2010: 4.07 million (71% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.79 million (75% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 341,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 214,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 115,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.20 million (19% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.12 million (20% of voter population)
- 2000: 949,000 (19% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 318,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2010: 220,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2000: 114,000 (2% of voter population)

The first day of early in-person voting in Virginia also marked, for the first time ever, National Black Voter day. Organized by a local Virginia brand of the NAACP, the campaign intends to get out the vote among Black populations. Black voter turnout in the state decreased by 7% during the 2016 election, according to Census Bureau data. And other obstacles make for an even more challenging landscape this year. In February 2019, a picture leaked of Gov. Ralph Northam in blackface from his high school’s yearbook. That event and 2020’s Black Lives Matters protests have revitalized conversation around how politics and racism are intertwined in Virginia.

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Washington

- 2018 eligible voter population in Washington: 5.36 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4.10 million (76% of voter population)
- 2010: 3.83 million (81% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.48 million (85% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 411,000 (8% of voter population)
- 2010: 271,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2000: 159,000 (4% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 185,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2010: 152,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 120,000 (3% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 363,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2010: 263,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2000: 157,000 (4% of voter population)

Eligible Asian American and Pacific Islander voters grew by 43% between 2012 and 2018 in Washington. King County, for which the county seat is Seattle, also the state’s most populated city, houses 44% of those people, according to APIA Vote. The state also has a notable Indigenous population. In 2019, Washington legislators passed the Native American Voting Rights Act, which allowed for a variety of different addresses to be permissible for voter registration. Crosscut reported that the state has also started to place more ballot drop boxes on reservations in an effort to reach more Native American voters.

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Washington D.C.

- 2018 eligible voter population in Washington D.C.: 527,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 220,000 (42% of voter population)
- 2010: 181,000 (40% of voter population)
- 2000: 134,000 (33% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 37,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2010: 22,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2000: 13,000 (3% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 236,000 (45% of voter population)
- 2010: 230,000 (50% of voter population)
- 2000: 247,000 (60% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 19,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 15,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 7,000 (2% of voter population)

The District of Columbia is known for having fairly diverse suburbs. But among eligible voter populations, the city is unique because the share of Black voters has decreased and the percentage of white voters actually increased in the metro area. The Black population has been on the decline since the 1980s, as more white people migrate into the district, according to the Urban Institute.

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West Virginia

- 2018 eligible voter population in West Virginia: 1.43 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 1.34 million (93% of voter population)
- 2010: 1.38 million (94% of voter population)
- 2000: 1.33 million (95% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 16,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 12,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 8,000 (1% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 56,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 44,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 41,000 (3% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 7,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 5,000 (0% of voter population)
- 2000: 5,000 (0% of voter population)

The share of Black state legislators decreased from 2% in 2015 to 1% in 2020 in West Virginia. This shouldn’t come as a surprise, given that the overall voting population of the state is 93% white. Interestingly, Wheeling City Council voted to officially declare racism as a public health crisis, and is the first city in West Virginia to do so. WBOY reported that the petition aims to “find ways to better represent the whole community.”

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Wisconsin

- 2018 eligible voter population in Wisconsin: 4.40 million

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3.79 million (86% of voter population)
- 2010: 3.74 million (88% of voter population)
- 2000: 3.56 million (91% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 183,000 (4% of voter population)
- 2010: 130,000 (3% of voter population)
- 2000: 76,000 (2% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 252,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2010: 227,000 (5% of voter population)
- 2000: 182,000 (5% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 81,000 (2% of voter population)
- 2010: 56,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 22,000 (1% of voter population)

Wisconsin in a swing state. And like many others in the Midwest, the most diverse populations can often be found in the big cities rather than predominantly white rural areas. Wisconsin’s total Black population is about 6.7% according to Census Bureau data, but the state’s largest city, Milwaukee, is home to 40% of the Black population. Milwaukee’s electorate is responsible for 10% of the state’s vote, but as reported by the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, the city’s low voter turnout in the past creates uncertainty in how these diverse communities will show up for this election.

Recent events, like the Kenosha shooting in which a white 17-year-old was arrested for allegedly killing two protesters, and injuring a third, has fueled protests for social justice and garnered the attention of presidential candidates Donald Trump and Joe Biden. It’s unclear how this will impact the state vote in 2020.

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Wyoming

- 2018 eligible voter population in Wyoming: 435,000

White eligible voter population:
- 2018: 378,000 (87% of voter population)
- 2010: 376,000 (89% of voter population)
- 2000: 329,000 (91% of voter population)

Hispanic eligible voter population:
- 2018: 32,000 (7% of voter population)
- 2010: 25,000 (6% of voter population)
- 2000: 17,000 (5% of voter population)

Black eligible voter population:
- 2018: 3,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 4,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2000: 2,000 (1% of voter population)

Asian eligible voter population:
- 2018: 4,000 (1% of voter population)
- 2010: 2,000 (0% of voter population)
- 2000: 1,000 (0% of voter population)

Wyoming has the smallest population of immigrants in the country. The number is so low that researchers at Pew Research are unable to estimate the percentage of eligible voters among that subset. The Black and Asian populations in this state are also particularly low. This lack of diversity coupled with the state’s predominantly rural landscape have shaped the national elections for years. Wyoming has not voted Democratic since 1964.

Voter turnout lags behind national trends as well. In this year’s primary election, 52% of the voting age population registered to vote, and only 31.5% showed up to the polls. But certain voter access reforms are thought to help increase turnout, even among underrepresented populations. County17 reported that the state passed a law authorizing tribal IDs for voter registration, which had previously been a barrier for the Indigenous population living on the Wind River Indian Reservation.

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